There's simply much too much to learn to explain it all in a post.
First, got to your local library - borrow as many books as you can find on the subject of beekeeping - interlibrary loan, whatever you have to do. Buy cheap off Amazon the ones you find helpful and like. Nothing like needing a piece of information from an interlibrary loaned book (gahh!!!).
Second, search on-line for a local beekeepers club. Some clubs are good. Some are not. Depends on what you wish to learn and the willingness of the group. Search out folks who have been keeping bees for a very very long time. Ask polite questions. Listen to the answers. Take notes. Be a good student!
Third, sign up on the boards www.beesource.com - they're much like these boards. Lots of helpful information. Too much at times! Spend countless hours reading. Spend more hours reading.
Fourth, if you are interested in organic beekeeping, sign up for the yahoo group, "Organic Beekeepers" - Dee Lusby runs it, she's been a beekeeper since she was 10 or so - she's got her critics, but her information is sound, or has been for me in N IL. She has an annual conference, it's coming up end of February. I highly recommend it if you can get to Tuscon, AZ. And hey, Tuscon in the wintertime is pretty darn nice for those of us where it freezes hard for months on end.
Fifth, read some more.
Sixth, take a class somewhere. Get to know local bee-teachers (not the same folks as in the club, at least not here!).
Seventh, buy yourself a beesuit and smoker (again, choices are many, options are great, it's personal and hard to recommend gear for someone if you don't know them).
Eigth - Volunteer at a local agency that has bees - historic farms around here have them and need people to work their hives. You'll be learning hands on, using equipment, seeing what works and what doesn't. Once you've learned a thing or two - keep volunteering! Don't drop and run just because you think you've learned enough. Every season is different; every hive is different; what makes one hive survive is different in different fields....keep good notes!
Ninth - NEVER, ever, stop learning! The bees will teach you, not the other way around. Know they are a sentient, survivalist animal that you are simply helping by housing - and you'll all get along just fine.
Good luck! Have fun! Beekeeping is an adventure which does not end - and it's tasty too!