How hands on are you? lol I roll mine back over if a pipper gets rolled. Is it neccessary? Probably not, but I feel better.
Sorry to see that. The membrane should be papery white. The fact that it looks pretty tough could have something to do with it. It could have exhausted itself trying to get through it. The chick could have been just too weak. It's hard to say.
Sounds like you've done what you can at this point.
What day is it on? It's hard to see anything in the pic.
Well, "they" say that it's the co2 build up that propells the chick/duck to make the external pip. So if you use that logic then it's understandable to conclude that by adding a hole then yes, it would. Does it for a fact? Sometimes it might extend a chick's chance to get out by giving it a little extra air before it sufficates giving it more time to externally pip, but it's a tough call. If you are worried about extra fluid in the egg you can hatch it upright in a cut down carton to give it a little more chance to hatch w/o excess fluid finding it's way to the air cell.
4&half days. I'll try to get a better pic later. T hinken it's a backwards air cell,not sure yet though still reading old threads.