Collection, WASHING & Storage of Eggs
Collection, Washing & Storage of Eggs
Choose eggs that are of good size, not abnormally big or small. Do NOT set dirty, cracked, or porous eggs.
Clinical studies at the University of Arkansas have shown that if your going to set a dirty egg, set the dirty egg, DO NOT SAND, WASH OR WIPE dirty eggs as hatchability decreases with these practices!
Cuticula is the thin membrane that covers the whole eggshell that is made from the sticky fluid when laid which covers it and quickly dissolves due to carbondioxyde activity.
This membrane can be penetrated by gasses but functions as a kind defensive mechanism to prevent the entry of bacteria.
The washing and rubbing action also serves to force disease organisms through the pores of the shell. Place the eggs upright in an egg carton with the FAT, air cell end of the egg UP! Allow eggs to sit in a moderately cool, somewhat humid place for storage. Basements are great. Moderately cool means 55-65 degrees. Rotate your eggs a 3 times a day to keep the embryo from sticking. An easy way to turn all of the eggs at once is to place a thick book under one end of the carton, and later remove the book and put it under the other end of the carton, 3 times a day. Before adding eggs to the incubator always WARM eggs UP slowly to room temperature. IF THE EGGS ARE COLD Condensation can cause bacterial growth on the eggs! You can collect eggs up until 10 days or so, but after the 7th day lower hatch rates may result.
Stored eggs take longer to hatch (about one hour per day of storage).
It is important to ALWAYS wash your hands before handling your hatching eggs!
Omphalitis, yolk sack infection is caused by a bacterium that enters through the porous egg shell and easily kills embryo's and newly hatched chicks. Unfortunately, incubation conditions are ideal for breeding bacteria as well as incubating eggs. For more information on storing eggs refer to Recommendations for hatching egg handling and storage
If you MUST store longer please see this info HERE:
http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/704328/diary-notes-air-cell-detatched-shipped-eggs/26100#post_13329240 ( pasted below from diary thread)
When eggs were stored in the small-end-up position for 2 to 4 weeks, it was, not beneficial to turn them daily as had been previously demonstrated to be advantageous for eggs stored small-end-down.
PLASTIC BAG EGG STORAGE!!! http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=618820
Temporary heating before incubation and enclosing eggs in plastic bags during storage improves hatchability, especially when storage is prolonged. A high humidity during storage also improves hatchability, probably due to a reduction in water loss. The changes in albumen pH during storage are discussed in so far as they provide a possible explanation for relationships between environmental conditions during storage and hatching results.
Effects of inverting the position of layers eggs during storage on hatchery performance parameters
Storing eggs with the small end up is an alternative method to improve hatchability and to reduce egg weight and hatchling weight losses in eggs derived from young and old breeders stored up to 14 days.
Use your turners during storage!
Most commercial hatcheries sanitize their eggs. There are differences of opinions about how to sanitize eggs, if you feel they need to be. Some experts advocate washing and even lightly scrubbing eggs with soft brushes. Others feel that the most that should be done is dipping for a few seconds. Because of the varying opinions on sanitizing eggs, the following is an opinion of Brower and not necessarily a hard and fast recommendation. Accomplish sanitizing by dipping eggs in solution containing disinfectant that is just strong enough to kill bacteria and viruses. However, the disinfectant should not be so strong as to damage the embryos.
Mix the sanitizing solution according to the manufacturers' instruction. A recommended cleaning solution is Tex-Trol. TexTrol may be available at a local retail outlet. For the name of a retailer search for it online. If using Tex-Trol, mix one half ounce of concentrated disinfectant to one gallon of warm water. You can also use 1 ounce of Clorox to 2 gallons of water. The water should be 100 to 110 degrees Fahrenheit (37° to 44°C). If the egg is warmer than the solution, contamination can be pulled through the pores of the egg before the agent has a chance to neutralize any pathogens.. Submerge the eggs for one to three minutes with dirtier eggs left in solution longer than ones that essentially look clean. Allow the eggs to air dry at room temperature and store as described above--or set in your incubator. A soft paper tissue can be used to dry the eggs but don’t rub the egg with a tissue or any material. Eggs have a natural protective cuticle that helps retard contamination. Rubbing removes the cuticle and can actually drive pathogens through the shell.
(1 Tablespoon = 3 Teaspoons per gal )
Sanitizing solution of chlorine (bleach) 6% hypochlorite and water at a concentration of 100 ppm (parts per million) = To make a100 ppm chlorine solution, combine 2 ml. (1/2 tsp.) of bleach with one quart of water.
The efficacy of chlorine dioxide ( ClO2) as an alternative sanitizing agent for hatching eggs was investigated because of the health concerns about formaldehyde fumigation. Hatchability of chicken eggs was reduced when the eggs were dipped in the ClO2 solutions for more than 5 minutes or in concentrations greater than 100 ppm Cl. However, treating hatching eggs with a ClO2 foam or fumigating with formaldehyde had no adverse effect on hatchability compared with untreated control eggs. Sanitizing soiled duck eggs with ClO2 foam improved hatchability by more than 10% and hatch by more than 6% compared with untreated eggs (P < 0.05). A novel method for assessing bactericidal potential of egg-sanitizing agents was developed. Using this technique, both chlorine dioxide foam and formaldehyde fumigation reduced the number of egg-contaminant bacteria inoculated on sterile chicken eggs compared with the number of bacteria on untreated eggs (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that sanitizing hatching eggs with ClO2 foam may be a viable alternative to fumigating with formaldehye.
EGG DIPPING SOLUTION
This procedure has been used to destroy pathogenic organisms such as Mycoplasma spp. that can be carried on the hatching eggs. The procedure must be conducted exactly as described, and is not intended as a routine hatching egg treatment. The procedure is only used in unusual situations.
The antibiotic solution contains 500 ppm gentamycin sulfate
(1 gram per 2 liters of water) or 1 gram tylosin per liter of water.
The hatching eggs must be carefully washed, rinsed, and sanitized prior to treatment. The eggs are then prewarmed to 100 degrees F. for 3-6 hours and immediately submerged into the antibiotic solution that has been previously cooled to 60 degrees F. The eggs are left in the antibiotic solution for 15 minutes before being placed into the incubator.
After each day's use, the solution must be sterilized by heating to 160 degrees and maintained for 10 minutes. Any water lost during sterilization must be replaced. Refrigerate the solution in a clean covered container between uses to prevent bacterial contamination. Do not use or store solutions for more than three days after dilution.
FUMIGATION OF HATCHING EGGS AND EQUIPMENT
Preincubation of hatching eggs and equipment
Mix .6 gram potassium permanganate (KMnO4) with 1.2 ml formalin for each cubic foot of space.
2 oz KMnO4 and 4 fl oz formalin per 100 ft3 space.
Mix both ingredients in an earthenware or heat resistant container having at least ten times the capacity of the ingredients being added. Circulate the gas for 20 minutes at 70 degrees F. or higher. Equipment without eggs can be allowed to fumigate overnight before exhausting the formaldehyde gas.
Fumigating eggs in incubator
Mix .4 gram KMnO4 and .8 ml formalin per ft3
1.5 oz KMnO4 and 3 fl oz formalin per 100 ft3
Follow the same guidelines as discussed for equipment fumigation. Do not fumigate chicken eggs between the 24th and 96thhours of incubation. Other species of birds may need the incubation intervals adjusted to compensate for total incubation time in relationship to the chicken's incubation period. It is best to incubate after the incubator reaches normal operating temperature and humidity.
The Cuticle removal
in hatching eggs as a means to reduce weight loss: Has actually been found to increase embryo weight during incubation and has direct relationship between rate of egg water loss, embryonic metabolism, and growth during incubation. But that warning of contamination is there if you dont follow cleaning procedures correctly. Chlorine treated eggs were not altered either. So with all that it is found that cuticle removal can be an effective method for increasing growth and egg weight loss.
'Sweating' of eggs refers to the phenomenon of condensed water sitting on the egg shell surface. This occurs when cold eggs are suddenly exposed to a higher environmental temperature. The warm air with a certain moisture content cools down rapidly directly around the colder eggs. Since cold air contains less water than warm air, relative humidity will increase until the air is saturated. And at that moment, condensation will take place on the cool egg surface.
Prior to EGG placement in the incubator,
place the eggs at a room temperature for several hours.
Digital Egg Scale - Accurate Humidity Measurement and Egg Sizing HERE
ZONES OF COLD INJURY fro EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT post #36213
PULLET EGGS??? post #41984 UNDER CONSTRUCTION
DOUBLE YOLKERS NOT suggested but they can hatch with assistance post #46649