A couple of things to consider - Chronic Fowl Cholera and Mareks. Cornell University yielded the following info that might shed some light:
In the case of Fowl Cholera, this chicken would probably have experienced mild to severe respiratory symptoms in the past (rapid breathing, mucous discharge from eyes-nares-mouth, weight loss, diarrhea, etc) but appeared to recover. Those that survive the acute infection or a mild strain of the disease will sometimes get a localized infection of the wattles, sinuses, foot pads, wing and leg joints. I looked through a number of photographs of swollen/abscessed wattles due to FC and at least a couple were similar in size and shape of the one removed from your hen. The chronic form of FC may clear up in 3 to 4 weeks or may persist for years. Interesting footnote - the swollen/infected foot pads from chronic FC can be misdiagnosed by the layman as Bumblefoot, an infection due to injury rather than infection due to disease (FC).
The other possibility - Mareks Disease - has been likened to "chicken cancer." One manifestation of the disease causes lymphomas (tumorous growths). While it is most common for these tumors to be visceral, some cases exhibit involvement of the epithelial cells of the skin resulting in raised and roughened feather follicles or tumorous growths such as your hen exhibited.
Then, of course, as Sigmund Freud once opined, "Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar." The growth you removed may have been an abscess/infection due to an undetected injury. For the layman, it's just a wild guessing game. I offer this info not to unduly scare you into believing that your hen has one of those dreadful diseases, but only to suggest that it is possible. Since both FC and Mareks are highly infectious, and infected but surviving birds can be carriers, it might be worthwhile for you to consult your personal Vet or your State Veterinarian about the growth you removed.