If NPIP testing included the Mycoplasmas it would be very expensive. Not only that, but since 75 - 95% of all flocks test positive, what would they do about it? Kill 75 - 95% of all chickens? After doing some research on the deadly and dangerous diseases they do test for, I have a renewed appreciation of the NPIP program and testing that is done. I now appreciate what they DO test for! If it weren't for this, we could all still be battling these diseases in our flocks. If they are eradicated, it is likely due to their continued vigilance in testing, in my opinion.
Edited by kathyinmo - 2/23/11 at 8:02pm
National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP)
The NPIP is a cooperative program begun in the 1930s by federal/state governments and industry to coordinate efforts to eliminate PD from poultry flocks and hatcheries. Since then, the NPIP has adapted to changes in the poultry industry.Years of dedicated effort have led to the eradication of PD from commercial poultry flocks. Outbreaks still occur, reinforcing the need for continued diligence and surveillance
Salmonella Gallinarum, Fowl Typhoid is a disease caused by one of the two poultry-adapted strains of Salmonella bacteria, Salmonella Gallinarum. This can cause mortality in birds of any age. Broiler parents and brown-shell egg layers are especially susceptible. Chickens are most commonly affected but it also infects turkeys, game birds, guinea fowls, sparrows, parrots, canaries and bullfinches. Infections still occur worldwide in non-commercial poultry but are rare in most commercial systems now. Morbidity is 10-100%; mortality is increased in stressed or immunocompromised flocks and may be up to 100%. The route of infection is oral or via the navel/yolk. Transmission may be transovarian or horizontal by faecal-oral contamination, egg eating etc, even in adults. The bacterium is fairly resistant to normal climate, surviving months, but is susceptible to normal disinfectants.
Pullorum Disease (PD), previously known as Bacillary White Diarrhoea, in poultry is caused by Salmonella Pullorum. It is an acute systemic disease of young chickens and poults. Pullorum disease is spread from infected parent birds via the egg to the chick. Infected chicks spread the disease laterally in the hatchery. It is most typically found in young birds where it is a potential killer but it can also infect older birds as well.Because many prior studies have indicated that vertical transmission to chicks is the principal route of introduction of S. pullorum into flocks, the possibility of horizontal transmissionat later ages has not often been extensively investigated. The current NPIP testing program is based on the assumption that testing breeder pullet flocks before they begin egg production provides an effective control point for preventing later transmission of S.pullorum to progeny.
Avian influenza is a viral disease affecting the respiratory, digestive and/or nervous system of many species of birds. A major epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza occurred in the northeastern United States in 1983-84. It took more than 2 years to eradicate, at a cost of more than 70 million dollars. Approximately 17 million birds had to be destroyed during the eradication effort.The United States has not had a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza since 1986, although less pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus are present and have caused significant losses in the poultry industry. Another major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza would be disastrous to the American poultry industry. There is no effective treatment for avian influenza. However, good husbandry, proper nutrition, and broad spectrum antibiotics may reduce losses from secondary infections. It must be remembered that recovered flocks continue to intermittently shed the virus.