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Histomoniasis? Warning necropsy pics - Page 2

post #11 of 16
Quote:
Originally Posted by zeppley View Post
 

Michael,

 

That could very well be the initial problem.  By the time of necropsy, the cecal walls were paper thin. I read yesterday that a secondary E. coli infection can produce cecal cores, so that may have also been going on as well.  I didn't take scrapings from the ceca, but did for the duodenum and jejunum. Nothing found, but that was after worming and a course of Corid.  Looking back at my notes, I noticed she was thin last September.  I figured that was because she was low ranking so I fed her separately.  Poor hen.  This is a tough learning curve I'm climbing.


And it has happened to anyone who has raised chickens whether they performed a necropsy or not. Your pullet was nine months. I use preventative treatments of Corid (amprolium) once a month in waterers, from 2-3 weeks of age up until 7-9 months of age. I also supplement diets to ensure they grow well and build immunity to disease. I don't use medicated feed.

 

I pay close attention to the consistency of droppings. A bright head lamp or inspecting fresh droppings in the bright sun will reveal caecal worms, but not capillaria sp., which are much more difficult to spot. I have detected worms as early as 4 months of age, and I'm sure others have found them at an earlier age. Most people find themselves deworming before hens are old enough to start laying. Whether it was protozoa, worms, or both which caused the condition of the caecal sacs, it doesn't matter so much as preventing it from happening again.

 

Keeping wild birds away from troughs and waterers, keeping rodents away, keeping grass cut, and having well draining soil in the yard (soil which does not become mud, or have numerous stagnant puddles of water) can also prevent lots of vectors which pass helminth eggs to chickens. Spreading DE or spraying pesticides all over the place, using all sorts of different dietary approaches, will not prevent worms or protozoa from being in the environment and entering a chicken's body.

 

Probiotics of the dispersible powder type, like Probios, are very beneficial to digestive health and assisting a strong immune system. They are more easily absorbed than other methods of feeding foods containing limited types of lactic acid bacteria. I use it once a week without fail. I also supplement poultry vitamins in water 2-3 days a week regularly, and more often during moult, stress from weather, etc.

 

In my many years of raising chickens, I have found these routines to be very beneficial with few health problems ever arising, that cannot be remedied quickly before they become detrimental. Obtaining healthy stock from the beginning makes a big difference too. I'm sorry about your hen. I have had to cull a few birds over the years that were all special to me, so I know how you feel. We never stop learning how to enhance the health of our birds, but seeing the results of what we learn and put into practice makes the difference.


Edited by Michael Apple - 2/5/15 at 8:54pm

The Status Quo always sucks!

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The Status Quo always sucks!

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post #12 of 16
Thread Starter 

Thanks Michael, I appreciate the good advice.  

 

I was lucky for several years. I got by with yearly worming (ivermectin!) despite letting the chickens eat all the earthworms they wanted. No clinical manifestations, no lice, mites or worms visible, just fat, glossy birds.  Most "retired" at 5-7 years.

 

The next season is coming, so I'll have another chance to put better practices in place.

 

Thanks to all who offered advice!

post #13 of 16
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by zeppley View Post
 

My favorite hen, a 9-month old blue Ameraucauna hadn't been feeling well (hiding in corners) or eating much even when give scrambled eggs and meal worms.  I isolated her, added a heat lamp, and added supplemenal tube feeding.

 

I did a fecal float (my first) and saw Capillaria/Trichuris eggs (anyone know how to tell these apart?), possibly sporulated eimaeria, and some round and oval worm eggs (ascarids, probably).  I wormed her (Valbazen) and started Corid.

 

Her weight loss slowed but otherwise she showed no improvement.  Her poop was green, fluffy and wet - sorry no photos. I was afraid she might have Marek's - she occasionally shook her head and her aim wasn't good.  After 3 weeks, I culled her and did a necropsy.

 

She had healthy pectoral muscles, visceral fat and food in her gut.  Her liver was tan with red margins and friable.  There were hard nodules on the surface of her proventriculus, ileum, and ceca.  I thought, O no! Marek's - but her brachial and sciatic nerve plexi looked fine. Her ceca were hard and full of caseous yuck.

 

 Upper arrows show nodules, lower arrow label says "not a worm, tissue scrap" I didn't see any worms.

 

Now I'm thinking perhaps histomoniasis with the tan liver and the cecal cores, although her liver doesn't have the surface lesions typical of blackhead.  

 

I'm hoping those more experienced will weigh in.

 

This is the 15th year I've raised chickens in this coop.  I've lost the occasional one or two birds a year, and never seen anything like this despite them eating earthworms and having a wren trying to nest in the coop.  

 

If this is histomoniasis, how do I protect my peafowl, living at the other end of the yard? 

 

I'm pretty sure problem was coccidiosis.

 

I don't think it was histomoniasis given that the liver showed no lesions.

 

I just found a photo from a necropsy of a chicken with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella).  It's ceca looked just like the ones above - full of caseous material. Often this material is bloody but in the photo I found, the material was pale like the photo above.  "At a later stage, the caecal content becomes thicker, mixed with fibrinous exudate and acquires a cheese like appearance." 

http://www.thepoultrysite.com/publications/6/diseases-of-poultry/206/coccidiosis/

 

I had previously found coccidia in her fecal sample. Even though she finished a course of Corid, the damage to her gut was too extensive for her to recover.

post #14 of 16
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by zeppley View Post
 

I did a fecal float (my first) and saw Capillaria/Trichuris eggs (anyone know how to tell these apart?)

 

For the record, birds don't get Trichuris (whipworms), only Capillaria (hairworms or threadworms).  So if you see one of these in fecal flotation or wet mount, it's a Capillaria egg.

 

[MICAMUserComment] [MICAMSystemComment] Capture SampleDate = 2016-03-13 Celestron_Bausch and Lomb; Obj: 100 X; um/pixel: 0.378800 [MICAMMCSystemComment] Revision = 2000 Magnification = 100 X Calibration = 0.378800 MCsystem = Celestron_Bausch and Lomb CaptureWidth = 640 NrOfObjectives = 3 ImageObj = 2 obj0 = 10 objstr0 = 10 cal0 = 0.378787878787879 obj1 = 45 objstr1 = 45 cal1 = 0.0785840967675576 obj2 = 100 objstr2 = 100 oil cal2 = 0.0395256916996047

post #15 of 16
Quote:
Originally Posted by zeppley View Post
 
Quote:
Originally Posted by zeppley View Post
 

I did a fecal float (my first) and saw Capillaria/Trichuris eggs (anyone know how to tell these apart?)

 

For the record, birds don't get Trichuris (whipworms), only Capillaria (hairworms or threadworms).  So if you see one of these in fecal flotation or wet mount, it's a Capillaria egg.

 

[MICAMUserComment] [MICAMSystemComment] Capture SampleDate = 2016-03-13 Celestron_Bausch and Lomb; Obj: 100 X; um/pixel: 0.378800 [MICAMMCSystemComment] Revision = 2000 Magnification = 100 X Calibration = 0.378800 MCsystem = Celestron_Bausch and Lomb CaptureWidth = 640 NrOfObjectives = 3 ImageObj = 2 obj0 = 10 objstr0 = 10 cal0 = 0.378787878787879 obj1 = 45 objstr1 = 45 cal1 = 0.0785840967675576 obj2 = 100 objstr2 = 100 oil cal2 = 0.0395256916996047

:bow

 

-Kathy

post #16 of 16

@luxbwinDVM , this thread might interest you.

 

-Kathy

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