Coccidiosis : Every Chicken Keeper Aware About The Common Infection In Poultry That's Caused By A Parasite Family Called "Coccidian Protonza"Which Has Divided In 5 Different Types Of Cocci Parasites .
- Eimeria Tenella '
- Eimeria Necatrix
- Eimeria Acervulina
- Eimeria Brunetti &
Cocci Is The Most Dangerous Fear Any Chicken Keeper Had & I Know Yet We've Far Less Experts In Cocci But Today I'm , going to give you knowledge about this type of Cocci Called E.Maxima which is most common Infection in Broiler Breed of chickens , nd Others & maybe the most important type of cocci in all of these 5 types .
So Lets Get Started! ..
One of the more common forms of coccidiosis in commercial broilers or other gamebird . Because of the area of intestine affected it tends to have a significant effect on productivity and susceptibility to Necrotic Enteritis. Caused by Eimeria maxima, of moderate to high pathogenicity it is seen worldwide. Morbidity and mortality are variable.
Just like others cocci's the affections are similar but quite different . Chickens are very stubborn birds if they get sick inside they hide the maximum symptoms and show normal i can say (They Are Very Good Actors). Their symptoms comes out when something serious started getting happen and they can't handle it anymore this same happen in cocci . I've seen in cases where people say that their chick / chicken is very healthy and suddenly get sick they are in shock how it happend? as they taking care f their bird regularly changing the litter regularly make them clean and provide them good feed and fresh water then how cocci happen suddenly without any clue ?
Cocci can happen anytime anywhere if the whether , temp , oxygen , humidity is according to the life of cocci it take place very easily under the coop or outside we know it very well . cocci take place in the wet soil this also we know then how well maintained chick / chicken got cocci ??
There's possible two ways :-
1st they eat some insects , flies , worms that carries the egg Or 2nd their own or their fellow mate or someone else "POOP". There are many insects , worms that carries possibly cocci eggs some are on grounds like Änt Family (All Red , Black & Fire Ants) they always eat the cocci eggs and then they got eaten by chickens and the cycle take place in the chicken's gut. flies family like House Fly , Blue Fly , Big Blackhead Fly , Insects Like Grasshopper , Wild Crickets (Those are in grass) , Cockroches , Roches ,
Underground Worms like Earthworms (Very Possibly) , Milipedes , Centipedes They Are Possible Carries The Cocci Eggs .
Proving Chickens Only "Packed Mealworms Are Only The Safest Fun Treat"Instead Of Let Them Run & Eat Some Unhealthy Thing That Make Them Ultra Sick .
Now , Come on their own poop all chicken carries little cocci in their intestine just to maintain their gut but very limited and when they poop that limited cocci eggs comes out with their poop and many many people complained that their chucks eat their own poop they play with their poop or eating everything with their poop that's the main reason in my point of view of cocci when we provide them very neat and clean enviro and still they get sick just because they eat their own poop or their fellow poop and that limited cocci gets unlimited in their gut & they become victim of cocci .
Signs Of E.Maxima Cocci :
Signs of this cocci is just as the other or maybe differ from bird to bird . I Have notice different different symptoms in birds . they are even not mentioned in internet or books .
parasitology is far more vary in practical life when we have cases infront of our eyes then usually discussion .
E.Maxima Symptoms (Actually seen)
- Ruffled feathers. or NOT
- Closed eyes. In Serious Cases Due To Tons Of Weakness & Blood Loss
- Less Or No Appetite
- Poor production.(In layers )
- Clear Blood or pink pigment in the stool .
- Depigmentation of skin and plasma is especially evident in this form of cocccidiosis
- Less Or No Chippry Sound In Talkactive Birds Or Very Loudly Chippring (In Chicks)
After Autospy Signs :-
How To Know Its Cocci :-
- Petechiae and thickening of middle third of intestine.
- Poor absorption of nutrients/pigments.
- Mild to severe enteritis, contents often orange in colour, mucosa tends to be pinker than normal.
- large numbers of characteristic oocysts in smears.
Signs, lesions, microscopic examination of scrapings. Differentiate from necrotic enteritis, non-specific enteritis.
Here i want to take a deep depth . Nowadays everyone starts treatment of cocci with the drug named "Corid 9.6% Solution Or Powder"That's Amprolium , Quinolones (Deccox®) , Ionophores (Coban®) and salinomycin (Salinomax®) Other drugs Cycarb® (nicarbizine) and Cycostat® (Robenidine Hydrochloride).Which is good to treat cocci but lets take a look on the drug called "Sulfadiazine Or Sulphonamides" From Sulfa Family .
Sulfonamide has a strong history in treatment & prevention of cocci from 1930(also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) The original antibacterial sulfonamides are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide group. Some sulfonamides are also devoid of antibacterial activity & Sulfa group is known as "BOARD SPECTRUM BACTERICITE"
Also, Sulfa Drug When Combine with Trimethoprim become Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. TMP/SMX was first sold in 1974 It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.
So instead of Corid , Sulfa Drugs are much better in performance . as they cure not one but many many types of infection not only cocci .
E.Maxima seems very weak infront of Sulfa + TMP Combo when gives accurate quantity to the bird
You need a veterinarian’s prescription to use drugs for poultry (but not to use vaccines). Feed mills need a license to put drugs in feed.
In the large-scale industry, drugs are used for prevention rather than treatment. If you treat the bird after an outbreak, the damage is already done. Many preventative drugs are effective only in the first part of the parasite life cycle, and therefore must be used early if they are to be used at all.
Drawbacks of using preventative drugs are their expense and he resistance that coccidia have developed. The drugs are not as effective now as when they were first introduced. Large companies use a drug rotation or shuttle program to reduce resistance.
There are not many new anticoccidial drugs because of the extensive process for FDA approval. It costs millions of dollars to develop a new anticoccial drug and get it approved for use.
In the large-scale industry, most anticoccidial drugs are withdrawn a week before slaughter of broilers to save money or to prevent residue in the meat. Drugs are withdrawn before layers begin laying eggs to prevent residues in the eggs.
Unfortunately, drugs used for prevention usually interfere with development of immunity to coccidia. On the other hand, using drugs for treatment only does allow immunity to develop. If signs of the disease appear, use drugs that are appropriate for coccidia’s late life cycle – only sulfonamides and amprolium. (Reid, 1990) When birds are getting sick, they lose their appetite. Therefore, soluble medication should be provided in the drinking water.with Vitamin A & K , Probiotics Helps It Alot.