I've done alot of reading and research but there doesn't seem to be much out there about caring for ducks in extreme cold. I'm starting my winter preparations and am trying to figure if my idea is reasonable enough for our harsh Canadian winters that do drop to -40 before the windchill for at least 2 months out of the year. I have currently have a pen that is 11'x21', and a tin shed that is 7'x8'x6' tall. It is already up on a subfloor of sorts, and is supported about 4" off the ground. I was hoping to convert it to be able to house the ducks over the winter by surronding the outside with stacked straw bails almost all the way around. For a heat source I was thinking of a heat bulb, OR we already have an exhaust vent from our indoor garden we tend in the winter close enough by which exhausts air that is about 80-90 degrees, however it does have a humidity level of 60% to 80% normally. The humidity is what concerns me becuse the ducks will create their own humidity as well. I have been researching bale coops and read that one guy uses hay on the floor and as the foundation because it absorbs the Nitrogen instead of it gassing off, he also instead of clearing it out, he would regularely pile more hay right on top so it was dry for the ducks, and it would compost over winter at the bottom of the coop creating it's own heat as well. One of my main concerns is how to keep everything running smoothly enough so that I only have to clean the coop once ever week or two, but not run into mould, or dampness problems. I know I have to figure a ventilation system, but want to do it without a fan if possible. One guy around here said he covered over his windows with a thick fleece to let the moisture out and keep the warm in, but I thought maybe it would be more practicle to creat slanted vents or chimneys in the roof and count on the hot air rising to take the moisture with it. The Pen will be available to them if the choose and the whole set up is in a sheltered part of our property behind out garage and in a bunch of evergreen trees and such. So I'm wondering mostly about the size and how many ducks I would be able to house from when the snow falls in october, untill spring in March/April. I was really hoping for thirty. The other thing I was wondering is if my set up would be enough to at least keep them in good health over the winter because once spring comes I have coops at ponds in farmers feilds for them to be moved to. And do you think I could use the exhaust from the garage instead of heat lamps, Also if anyone has any good idea, links, resources, or old threads it would be greatly appriciated. Oh and I have 5 Runner Ducks, 4 Black swedish, and have 6 more runners coming, and hopefully 12 Khaki Campbells if that makes a difference. So really I'll be looking at 20-30 ducks by then probably.