How big is your coop and your run? How much of the run is covered? I have a rain tarp over part of my run, and the food goes there. I have two bowls of water (still have to figure out how to do the hanging one on my set-up) so that if one bowl gets knocked over, they have the other... I'm fairly new to this, too, and you'll probably evolve what works for you over time.
I keep both inside on both sides of the coop to keep my goat and sheep out of them. The feeder hangs about 8" off the crushed gravel floor and the water sits up on a 2x6 frame covered with 1/2' hardware cloth stretched across the top to keep chicken & turkey feet dry. When it's hot, then I set a 2nd water outside to insure they always have water
We have our feeder and waterer in the coop. So far it hasn't made a mess. The feeder is on a hanging chain and the waterer sits on a cinder block which maintains a proper height and it doesn't sway on a chain. In the winter, we need to have the waterer near a power source (in the coop) which keeps it from freezing.
In the summer, we have a second waterer that is in the run. This is for the convenience of the chicks, so they don't have to go to the coop for a drink. We feed them scratch, meal worms and table scraps in the run.