I've lost 5 chicks since Tuesday. HELP!!!

Discussion in 'Emergencies / Diseases / Injuries and Cures' started by Telitha, Jan 5, 2013.

  1. Telitha

    Telitha Out Of The Brooder

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    Tuesday we picked up some chicks that were about 2 to 3 months old from someone local. We put them in their own coop, but our existing flock is out everyday and can get near their coop. Wednesday we lost one, Thursday we lost 2, Friday another and another this morning. When they start to look sick their eyes are swollen and they either keep them shut or can't open them. Some have had a nasal discharge, and a few, especially the one last night kept gasping/yawning and another one sounded like it was wheezing once I listened closely. I noticed another starting to make that yawning motion tonight.

    What should I do? I'm concerned for my existing flock since they can get so close to the new chicks. Please help
     
  2. Holleran Farms

    Holleran Farms Out Of The Brooder

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    First of all KEEP THEM SEPARATE from your existing flock. It doesn't sound good. I would medicate them immediately!!! I would put something like Sulmet in the water or maybe Corid if its coccidiosis. A buddy of mine is a big believer in giving them a shot in the breast muscle with 1/2 cc of Baytril. But please be advised giving a chicken a shot is not easy and is dangerous. You can kill them if not careful but if the chcikens are in bad shape it may be your only hope. You need a small short needle and you have to be careful you don't puncture an internal organ. However for sick chickens it does work. Get someone to help you hold the chicken and angle needle a bit to aviod going in too deep, If you decide to give them a shot go to a vet office probably one that deals with large anilmals like cattle ask them if you can buy about 5 cc's of batril and also ask for some small needles like a TB needle for cats. If you don't feel comfortable giving the shot you will have to just put antibiotics in the water. I know it's tough to see your chickens sick. Good luck.
     
  3. willowbranchfarm

    willowbranchfarm Chicken Boots

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    I dont know much about it but I would recommened you looking up infectious Corzya. I will try to find some link or treatment for you.
     
    Last edited: Jan 5, 2013
  4. cowcreekgeek

    cowcreekgeek Chillin' With My Peeps

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    Absolutely and immediately lock up your existing flock (although you may already be too late), and don't go near their coop 'til you've disinfected (preferably changing clothes/shoes). If any of your existing flock shows any sign of infection, throw 'em into the other coop (take an "all in / all out" approach).

    Also, give all your birds an astringent solution of Apple Cider Vinegar at the rate of 4 teaspoons to each gallon of water (but never in galvanized metal containers). No mater what you're dealing with, this will help, and can do no harm ... the tannin in the ACV helps to 'cut through' the coatings in the mouth, throat and intestines, and help them to expel the mucus (and the bacteria/viri it contains). This will also help them to better absorb any medication(s) you may administer, as it improves the uptake of nutrients/vitamins, and further boosts their immune systems.

    Whatever this is? It coulda been in the coop, awaiting their arrival, or coulda come in w/ 'em (or, they coulda picked it up from your own, which are actually not showing any symptoms, but are carriers of insert name of virus here). It could also be environmental ... ammonia, or some form of mold?

    willowbranchfarm seems to be one sharp lady, 'cause she's diagnosed quite a few threads, and just keeps gettin' things right ... can't be sure w/o additional details, but based on what you've shared thus far? IC would be my first guess, too. So, let's either pin it down, or rule it out:

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    >> peck here << to see additional images of Infectious Coryza (IC)​

    Infectious Coryza: Introduction
    Etiology
    Epidemiology and Transmission
    Clinical Findings
    Lesions
    Diagnosis
    Control and Treatment
    Infectious coryza is an acute respiratory disease of chickens characterized by nasal discharge, sneezing, and swelling of the face under the eyes. It is distributed worldwide. The disease is seen only in chickens; reports of the disease in quail and pheasants probably describe a similar disease that is caused by a different etiologic agent.
    In developed countries such as the USA, the disease is seen primarily in pullets and layers and occasionally in broilers. In the USA, it is most prevalent in commercial flocks in California and the southeast, although northeastern USA has recently experienced significant outbreaks. In developing countries, the disease often is seen in very young chicks, even as young as 3 wk of age. Poor biosecurity, poor environment, and the stress of other diseases are probably the main reasons why infectious coryza is more of a problem in developing countries. The disease has no public health significance.
    Etiology:
    The causative bacterium, Haemophilus paragallinarum (gallinarum) is a gram-negative, pleomorphic, nonmotile, catalase-negative, microaerophilic rod that requires nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (V-factor) for in vitro growth. When grown on blood agar with a staphylococcal nurse colony that excretes the V-factor, the satellite colonies appear as dewdrops, growing adjacent to the nurse colony. V-factor-independent H paragallinarum have been recovered in South Africa and Mexico. The most commonly used serotyping scheme is the Page scheme, which groups H paragallinarum isolates into 3 serovars (A, B, and C) that correlate with immunotype specificity.
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    Epidemiology and Transmission:
    Chronically ill or healthy carrier birds are the reservoir of infection. Chickens of all ages are susceptible, but susceptibility increases with age. The incubation period is 1-3 days, and the disease duration is usually 2-3 wk. Under field conditions, the duration may be longer in the presence of concurrent diseases, eg, mycoplasmosis.
    Infected flocks are a constant threat to uninfected flocks. Transmission is by direct contact, airborne droplets, and contamination of drinking water. “All-in/all-out” management has essentially eradicated infectious coryza from many commercial poultry establishments in the USA. Commercial farms that have multiple-age flocks tend to perpetuate the disease. Egg transmission does not occur. Molecular techniques such as restriction endonuclease analysis and ribotyping have been used to trace outbreaks of infectious coryza.
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    Clinical Findings:
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    Infectious coryza, swollen sinuses, hen
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    In the mildest form of the disease, the only signs may be depression, a serous nasal discharge, and occasionally slight facial swelling. In the more severe form, there is severe swelling of one or both infraorbital sinuses with edema of the surrounding tissue, which may close one or both eyes. In adult birds, especially males, the edema may extend to the intermandibular space and wattles. The swelling usually abates in 10-14 days; however, if secondary infection occurs, swelling can persist for months. There may be varying degrees of rales depending on the extent of infection. In Argentina, a septicemic form of the disease has been reported, probably due to concurrent infections. Egg production may be delayed in young pullets and severely reduced in producing hens. Birds may have diarrhea, and feed and water consumption usually is decreased during acute stages of the disease.
    Lesions:
    In acute cases, lesions may be limited to the infraorbital sinuses. There is a copious, tenacious, grayish, semifluid exudate. As the disease becomes chronic or other pathogens become involved, the sinus exudate may become consolidated and turn yellowish. Other lesions may include conjunctivitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, and airsacculitis, particularly if other pathogens are involved. The histopathologic response of respiratory organs consists of disintegration and hyperplasia of mucosal and glandular epithelia and edema with infiltration of heterophils, macrophages, and mast cells.
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    Diagnosis:
    Isolation of a gram-negative, satellitic, catalase-negative organism from chickens in a flock with a history of a rapidly spreading coryza is diagnostic. The catalase test is essential, as nonpathogenic Haemophilus organisms, which are catalase-positive, are present in both healthy and diseased chickens. A PCR test that can be used on the live chicken and that has proved superior to culture, even in developing countries, has been developed. Production of typical signs after inoculation with nasal exudate from infected into susceptible chickens is also reliable diagnostically. No suitable serologic test exists; a hemagglutination-inhibition test is the best of the available tests. Swelling of the face and wattles must be differentiated from that seen in fowl cholera ( Fowl Cholera: Introduction). Other diseases that must be considered are mycoplasmosis, laryngotracheitis, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza, swollen head syndrome (ornithobacterosis), and vitamin A deficiency.
    While currently found only in South Africa and Mexico, the presence of a V-factor-independent H paragallinarum must also be considered. The H paragallinarum PCR is an ideal diagnostic tool in this situation.
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    Control and Treatment:
    Prevention is the only sound method of control. “All-in/all-out” farm programs with sound management and isolation methods are the best way to avoid the disease. Replacements should be raised on the same farm or obtained from clean flocks. If replacement pullets are to be placed on a farm that has a history of infectious coryza, bacterins are available to help prevent and control the disease. USDA-licensed bacterins are available, and bacterins also are produced within states for intrastate use. Bacterins also are produced in many other countries. Because serovars A, B, and C are not cross-protective, it is essential that bacterins contain the serovars present in the target population. Vaccination should be completed ~4 wk before infectious coryza usually breaks out on the individual farm. Antibodies detected by the hemagglutination-inhibition test after bacterin administration correlate with protective immunity. Controlled exposure to live organisms also has been used to immunize layers in endemic areas.
    Because early treatment is important, water medication is recommended immediately until medicated feed is available. Erythromycin and oxytetracycline are usually beneficial. Several new-generation antibiotics (eg, fluoroquinolones, macrolides) are active against infectious coryza. Various sulfonamides, sulfonamide-trimethoprim, and other combinations have been successful but must not be used in layers. In more severe outbreaks, although treatment may result in improvement, the disease may recur when medication is discontinued.
    Preventive medication may be combined with a vaccination program, if started pullets are to be reared or housed on infected premises.



    Infectious Coryza



    Extracted From:
    A Pocket Guide to
    Poultry Health
    and
    Disease

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    By Paul McMullin
    [​IMG] 2004
    Click Here to
    Order Your Copy
    Introduction

    A usually acute, sometimes chronic, highly infectious disease of chickens, occasionally pheasants and guinea-fowl, characterised by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, especially nasal and sinus mucosae.

    Infectious Coryza is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus paragallinarum and is seen in many countries especially in multi-age farms that are never depopulated. Morbidity is high but mortality low if uncomplicated although it may be up to 20%.

    The route of infection is conjunctival or nasal with an incubation period of 1-3 days followed by rapid onset of disease over a 2-3 day period with the whole flock affected within 10 days, resulting in increased culling. Carriers are important with transmission via exudates and by direct contact. It is not egg transmitted.

    The bacterium survives 2-3 days outside the bird but is easily killed by heat, drying and disinfectants. Intercurrent respiratory viral and bacterial infections are predisposing factors.
    Signs


    • Facial swelling.
    • Purulent ocular and nasal discharge.
    • Swollen wattles.
    • Sneezing.
    • Dyspnoea.
    • Loss in condition.
    • Drop in egg production of 10-40%.
    • Inappetance.
    Post-mortem lesions


    • Catarrhal inflammation of nasal passages and sinuses.
    • Conjunctivitis.
    • Eye-lid adherence.
    • Caseous material in conjunctiva/sinus.
    • Tracheitis.
    Diagnosis

    A presumptive diagnosis may be made on signs, lesions, identification of the bacteria in a Gram-stained smear from sinus. Confirmation is by isolation and identification - requires X (Haematin) and V (NAD) factors, preferably in raised CO2 such as a candle jar. Serology: HI, DID, agglutination and IF have all been used but are not routine.

    Differentiate from Mycoplasmosis, respiratory viruses, chronic or localised pasteurellosis and vitamin A deficiency.
    Treatment

    Streptomycin, Dihydrostreptomycin, sulphonamides, tylosin, erythromycin. Flouroquinolones are bactericidal and might prevent carriers.
    Prevention

    Stock coryza-free birds on an all-in/all-out production policy. Bacterin at intervals if history justifies or if multi-age; at least two doses are required. Commercial bacterins may not fully protect against all field strains but reduce the severity of reactions. Live attenutated strains have been used but are more risky. Controlled exposure has also been practised.

    Vaccines are used in areas of high incidence. Birds recovered from challenge of one sero-type are resistant to others, while bacterins only protect against homologous strains.


    Mycoplasmosis, respiratory viruses, chronic or localised pasteurellosis and vitamin A deficiency have symptoms similar to Infectious Coryza (IC).

    As to the eyes? Watery, red, inflamed, closed is indicative of Laryngotracheitis; ammonia burn; Newcastle disease; nutritional deficiency - vitamin A. Large, swollen might be Mycoplasma infection. If they're watery, and the swelling is mostly the face (actually the sinus cavities, under the eyes) then it's more likely to be Infectious Coryza or E. coli.
     
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  5. Telitha

    Telitha Out Of The Brooder

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    There's no foul smell really. How could I tell the difference between that and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. They sound so similar.
     
  6. Telitha

    Telitha Out Of The Brooder

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    I will say also that some haven't had noticeable swollen eyes, the one that was making the wheezing noise did not have swollen eyes at all, I didn't even really think she was too sick, but found her dead the next morning.
     
  7. cowcreekgeek

    cowcreekgeek Chillin' With My Peeps

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    Hurricane, WV
    Well ... let's hope it ain't either, 'cause neither is good. The lack of any odor in the discharge may help rule out IC, and no 'frothiness about the eyes' may rule out Mycoplasma. Keep checkin' the list of possibilities, even as you continue every effort to completely isolate the apparently healthy from the infected (and the ACV in the water ~'-)

    There is a marked interaction between respiratory viruses, Escherichia coli , and M gallisepticum in the pathogenesis of chronic respiratory disease. Once infected, birds remain carriers for life.

    In chickens, infection may be inapparent or result in varying degrees of respiratory distress, with slight to marked rales, difficulty breathing, coughing, and/or sneezing. Morbidity is high and mortality low in uncomplicated cases. Nasal discharge and frothiness about the eyes may be present.
     

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