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Mapuche/South American Crested/ Nikkei/Kiri Kiri

Discussion in 'General breed discussions & FAQ' started by Resolution, Sep 29, 2010.

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  1. Resolution

    Resolution Chillin' With My Peeps

    Like their cousins in the Quechua Fowl tribe, Mapuche Fowl are probably most accurately described as a race unto themselves. There are several breeds that have originated from the same locus- the same or very closely related basic ancestral stock- that are collectively described -collectively as Mapuche Fowl- that is the domestic fowl of the Mapuche Indians.

    Of course the description of Mapuche chickens- and naming them after the Mapuche Indians is going to be a bit challenging.
    Please be patient.

    Birds that represent the original morphotypes- are facsimiles thereof, were introduced into rare poultry collections around the world. Most stocks were collected in the 1930's- 1970's.
    They represent a different genetic set then the majority of chickens currently running about the villages of Chile.
    It is going to be difficult for some people to conceptualize the idea that the South American Indians had just as many chicken breeds as the Europeans. Nevertheless, we are working together with Chilean; Peruvian; Argentinian and Mexican conservation poultiers, collaborating on selective breeding of ALL the South American cultural heritage treasures.


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    The Indigine (perfect) form of the Crested Mapuche Fowl photographed in Peru.


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    Map of Mapuche Indian territories.

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    The Mapuche Indians live in a region quite unlike any other place in the world.

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    Indigine Crested Mapuche one sees in remote villages- relatively small and gracile. Unfortunately he has yellow legs. Nevertheless, he has ample wings - I think they refer to the colour type of the wing as "crow wing" in North American poultier circles. The legs are well back on the body of the bird and relatively short. These are good traits.

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    This rooster was photographed in Peru -its obviously of Chaco Mapuche ancestry bred onto some commercial strain and that progeny bed interse for generations- in a feral flock for example. This is a near mirror phenotype of the Copper Scotch- a Vermont new heritage breed with Mapuche Huastec founders. This breed has been designed as a dual purpose, exceedingly winter hardy and quiet farm fowl.
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    The large, broad-breasted dual purpose Crested Mapuche one sees in many Chilean Villages. Kolloncas sent this photo from Chile.
     
    Last edited: Oct 8, 2010
  2. kano

    kano Chillin' With My Peeps

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    A "collonca de aretes" and a "quetro"mapuches[​IMG]
    In this country, several flocks of chicken , mostly in the farms of the south, have chickens that the peasants call "mapuches", which is the same name, that natives call themselves (people of the land)."Araucanos" was the name the spaniards called them. Here is very common to have blue or green eggs in your nest boxes, doesn't matter the form or shape of the bird.
     
    Last edited: Sep 29, 2010
  3. Resolution

    Resolution Chillin' With My Peeps

    Quote:It actually does matter. These breeds are ancient and very important for ethnozoologists and sustainable agriculturists.
    Those of us concerned with the conservation of indigenous culture, including the crops and livestock of the native peoples do care about the form and shape of the bird.

    We work together in cooperation across national boundaries with universities, poultry scientists and backyard hobbyists.

    Our objective is to help poultiers identify the original traits of the indigenous peoples crops and livestock. We work together to learn and participate in the process of recovering the cultural memory of selective breeding that these incredible peoples contributed to the world.
    For example, scientists yearn to identify the characteristics that native peoples used to created the first corn and maize plants so that we might be able conserve the original strains of these plants on which we all depend- the world's economy depends.
    Why? Some might ask. What is the point? Think about it for a moment.
    Industrial giants have bought up every seed of cotton and corn and are in the process of altering it so that it is forever a product and property of the corporation that has seized on to it. With no concept of the origins of the original wild plants or the path that the natives followed- and blazed for that matter- we will never be able to recreate the crops that provide so much to our economy and way of life.

    Moving to peasant chickens called "Mapuche" we strive to conserve the best genetic and cull the least valuable.
    Which are least valuable? Those that have been crossed with industrial commercial chicken strains. Having traveled throughout South and Central America studying indigenous agricultural practices I have observed the genetic introgression of commercial industrial breeds in so much of the indigenous stocks. Its disheartening and a bit alarming.
    We actually have better stocks in Japan and the USA than many peasants and aboriginals have in their own ancient homelands.
    There is very little concept of breed if at all in many of these countries. The names and descriptions I apply here on BYCF are artificial in that they were applied to these creatures by scientists concerned with the conservation of crops and livestock - many of them foreigners.

    It could easily be argued that any attempt to select breed remaining stocks in South America is without merit- especially as the vast majority of peasants raising poultry are completely happy with whatever flocks they have in their yards. They love the big fat stupid commercial strains. They will often find the commercial breeds superior to their own.


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    This fine rooster exhibits traits, which belie Mapuche ancestry but he's obviously the product of a highly compromised genetic history.
    His progenitors were largely commercial utility breeds with just a tiny percent of the Indigenous Peoples original bloodstock.



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    Here is the problem and perhaps the solution as well; industrial utility breeds express mailed to the world's most isolated communities.
    They provide ready food and economic gain to those that perpetuate the trade of their meat and eggs.

    ITs very difficult to persuade a poor community of native peoples and peasants of mixed ancestry to conserve stocks that sleep out in the trees, hide their eggs and dress out poorly for the table.

    I hope that you will join with us to suss out the intrinsic value ( and diversity) of native fowl - and share an appreciation for the unique colours and beauty that we foreigners have.

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    A native hen wandering around a village in Peru with ~ 50% Mapuche blood- the other 50% being some genetically over-represented commercial utility breed like the Red Comet or similar blegh
     
    Last edited: Sep 29, 2010
  4. Kollonco araucano

    Kollonco araucano Out Of The Brooder

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    Chilean specimens are very mixed with few commercial breeds. Much is customary to have several different breeds birds loose in the field and they will cross as they please.
    Although there are some characteristics we todabia old should make a rescue of individuals with these ancient features and directed crosses redirect these races that follow a path to extinction by hybridization.
     
  5. farmgirl1995

    farmgirl1995 Chillin' With My Peeps

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    Georgia:)
    I'm confused. I read everything by the pics and stuff...but whats with this breed? Is it endangered? Its very pretty.
     
  6. Resolution

    Resolution Chillin' With My Peeps

    Quote:I'm not being comprehensive just yet- lots going on here. Tonight I will crack this open-
    [​IMG]
    but YES we are dealing with incredibly endangered cultures- all indigenous peoples around the world are on the verge of extinction. With their extirpation we lose the whole history of what they've contributed to the world. The Meso Americans
    they gave our world economy :
    Sunflower; corn;cotton, beans, turkey, chocolate, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, peppers, avocado- quinoa- I can't remember much more but that is the bulk of it-
    the world simply did not have any concept -they had never experienced or seen -touched- tasted- smelled- any of the crops I list above. They did not exist to the rest of the world. We can not underestimated the impact that products- the industries supported by these products have had and continue to have on the economy and nutrition of our modern world-

    The indigenous peoples= the aboriginal cultures of South America are highly endangered and with them some of their more significant crops, livestock and knowledge base of the forests around them.


    The topic here is about the cousin of the Quechua described at length on another thread-
    This group of regional populations- typical of specific Indian language groups in specific regions of South America- its almost a breed class or race-unto itself. And naturally, this is true for the Quechua Oceania race as well. This specific group is crudely described as " Mapuche" or " South American Crested" or Nikkei or Kiri Kiri- these are all unique morphotypes=breeds basically that belong to this breed class or race.

    The answer should be simple, is this a breed or not=we've made it into a breed(s) over the last century but we have to acknowledge the parameters are different -than those standards we apply to breeds of poultry one might buy through a hatchery. That one might enter into a best in show competition.
    The aboriginal races are not defined by Indigine as distinct breeds per se-
    From each hatch- each clutch- the tradition has been- individuals that meet certain criteria are simply described accordingly- there is no culling involved- unless it is to rid the lineage of commercial industrial genetics-
    and that's a brand new concept- as Kolloncas (a serious conservation poultier from Chile) has just commented on this thread.
    The individual chicks hatched from each clutch, which meet specific criteria- phenotype; vocalization; egg hue;morphology etc.. these birds are described in the appropriate terminology and sold or traded as such.

    Consequently, a bird with the winter face of our familiar Ameraucana hitherto described as (our domestic strains North American) Quechua, born with no tail, no tufts and no topknot is described as Colloncas Quechua- meaning literally,
    Colloncas (tailless blue egg layer) of the Quechua language speaking Indians. The winter face being insulation in the wettest and or coldest and windiest elevations...

    The Mapuche races are prominently crested with feathered topknots. They generally have a tail. Those that do not are described as Ona. They do not have winterized faces generally and those that do are referred to ( in conservation circles) as Ona and Shehuen.

    In short, the Mapuche class are different from Quechua and Araucanian races. The Quechua is progenitor of the Ameraucana and UK Araucana. The Araucanian races are the Colloncas, Quetero, Aymara, Ona, Pehuen and Huapi.
     
    Last edited: Oct 15, 2010
  7. Kollonco araucano

    Kollonco araucano Out Of The Brooder

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    Mapuche races are actually a group of races that have developed as naturally and spontaneously (not as homogeneous as commercial breeds) have a greater diversity in their phenotypes, genotypes and ecotypes.

    I mean to be in danger of extinction, that being mixed with few commercial breeds these fish, they are losing some of its old features and are replaced by new features of the commercial breeds.

    Sorry my English is pretty bad because it's an online translator
     
  8. Kollonco araucano

    Kollonco araucano Out Of The Brooder

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    Sep 30, 2010
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    Last edited: Oct 1, 2010
  9. Resolution

    Resolution Chillin' With My Peeps

    Kolloncas may I use your photo of the Ona pullet? I'd like to post it here.
     
    Last edited: Oct 2, 2010
  10. Kollonco araucano

    Kollonco araucano Out Of The Brooder

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    Sep 30, 2010
    Santiago, Chile
    published the picture of me you want

    [​IMG]

    Uploaded with ImageShack.us
     
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