I've lurked on this site since a friend told me about it, but first time post (first time I've created an account!). First off, there is a huge amount of information here, and I read a few of the pages regarding nipple watering but there is too much to review. Apologies in advance if this is somewhere that I didn't find it. Straight to the point: Nipple Watering alone is INSUFFICIENT if you have a very hot/arid conditions. Unfortunately, I know this from experience. We have recently lost two gorgeous 1 year old Rhode Island Red hens due to my own ignorance about this, so I wanted to spread the word to any other newbies like myself. Our hens are all a bit over 1year, and all have used the nipple watering (from a 5 gal bucket hanging in their coop) since they were feathered. Conditions where we live are normally very mild (Southern California), but we have recently had a few episodes of extreme heat. During the fist heat wave (several weeks ago), we lost one Red hen. It was a mystery to me at the time- I just found her dead in the coop. No signs of illness or trauma. There was water in the bucket and the other birds (All Americauna) seemed fine. Yesterday it hit 114F degrees, and today it was 109 at 10:30 am (with temps climbing!). This morning I found another dead hen in the coop (the other Red), just like the last time we had a heat wave. I put a large water container on the ground for the remaining birds, and they went NUTS over it (opening their mouths and shaking their heads in the cool water- it was crazy). They still drink from the nipples when the water trough is "occupied". They were Clearly Dehydrated, but I didn't have enough experience to spot it. My newb to newb advice: Nipple Watering systems are very convenient, and may be fine during normal conditions, but you should consider adding an additional water source during hot/arid conditions.