Parasites in Waterfowl

Discussion in 'Ducks' started by casportpony, Mar 21, 2015.

  1. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    Internal parasites (endoparasites, worms, helminths)

    Gastrointestinal roundworms (nematodes)

    • Acuaria spp ~ Dispharynx ~ Synhimanthus spp. $. Gizzard worms. Gizzard, esophagus and proventriculus. Can be a problem in endemic regions, mainly in birds kept outdoors.
    • Ascaridia spp. $$$. Chicken roundworms. Small intestine. A serious problem worldwide, also in confined operations.
    • Capillaria spp. $$. Hairworms. Crop, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine.
    • Heterakis spp. $$$$. Cecal worms. Cecum. Probably the most threatening worms in all kind of poultry operations worldwide.
    • Oxyspirura spp. $. Fowl eyeworms. Eyes. Usually a secondary problem in individual birds kept outdoors.
    • Strongyloides spp. $$. Threadworms, pinworms. Small intestine. Can be a serious problem worldwide.
    • Subulura spp. $. Cecum and small intestine. A secondary problem in birds kept outdoors worldwide.
    • Syngamus trachea. $$. Gapeworms. Trachea, bronchi. A serious problem in birds kept outdoors in endemic regions.
    • Tetrameres spp. $. Proventriculus and esophagus. Can be a problem in endemic regions, mainly in outdoor opertaions.

    Tapeworms (cestodes)

    • Amoebotaenia cuneata = sphenoides. $. Small intestine. Usually a secondary issue in most poultry operations
    • Choanotaenia infundibulum. $. Small intestine. Usually not a major issue in modern poultry operations.
    • Davainea proglottina. $. Minute tapeworms. Small intestine. Can be a problem in birds kept outdoors in endemic regions.
    • Raillietina spp. $$. Small intestine. The most frequent tapeworm in poultry, however normally not a major problem.

    Flukes (trematodes, flatworms)

    • Prosthogonimus spp. $. Oviduct flukes. Oviduct, bursa of Fabricius. Can be a serious threat for birds kept outdoors in endemic regions.

    Source: http://parasitipedia.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2655&Itemid=2933

    -Kathy
     
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  2. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    Active ingredients

    The benzimidazoles and pro-benzimidazoles most relevant for veterinary use on cattle, sheep, goats, pig, poultry dogs and cats are the following:
    • Albendazole, massively used on livestock, less on pets
    • Febantel, (pro-benzimidazole), vastly used on pets, less on livestock
    • Fenbendazole, massively used on livestock and pets
    • Flubendazole, moderately used on livestock (mainly pig and poultry) and pets
    • Mebendazole, moderately used on livestock and pets
    • Netobimin, (pro-benzimidazole), scarcely used on livestock
    • Oxfendazole, scarcely used on livestock (mainly ruminants) and pets
    • Oxibendazole, scarcely used on livestock (mainly pig) and pets
    • Ricobendazole, moderately used on livestock (mainly ruminants)
    • Thiabendazole, very seldom, mostly replaced
    • Thiophanate (pro-benzimidazole) very seldom, mostly replaced
    • Triclabendazole, vastly used on livestock (only ruminants)
    Several benzimidazoles such as cambendazole and parbendazole have been vastly replaced by newer, more effective and safer active ingredients.
    Parasites controlled by benzimidazoles

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    As a thumb rule, the most relevant benzimidazoles and pro-benzimidazoles have the following spectrum of activity:
    Beside the activity against adult and larval stages of roundworms and flukes, an important feature for all anthelmintics is whether they control so-called arrested or dormant larvae as well. These are larvae that after infecting a host do not continue development to adults immediately but remain in the tissues for several months, to "wake up" later on and resume development when the conditions for their development are more favorable.
    Efficacy against arrested larvae and against each specific parasite depends strongly on the dose used, and different commercial brands may be dosed differently. Therefore, read the label instructions to be sure whether a particular product covers the spectrum of activity you need.
    Unless delivered using a slow-release device, benzimidazoles have no residual effect. This means that a single administration will kill the parasites in the host, but will not protect against re-infestations.
    Benzimidazoles do not control external parasites such as flies, ticks, mites, etc. They neither control larvae (maggots) of parasitic flies that cause myiases.

    Source: http://parasitipedia.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2440&Itemid=2701

    -Kathy
     
    Last edited: Mar 21, 2015
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  3. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    Niclosamide is toxic for geese, and the combination of praziquantel with pyrantel tartrate is toxic for chicken!

    -Kathy
     
    Last edited: Mar 21, 2015
  4. Miss Lydia

    Miss Lydia Running over with Blessings Premium Member

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    Thank you for the great info and details K. as always.
     
  5. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    You're welcome! On my list of things to do is to find treatments for all those worms listed. [​IMG] Know how to treat roundworms, cecal worms, capillary worms, gapes and tapes, but not sure on the others.

    Did you know that fenbendazole (Safeguard) does not treat flukes? That I just learned. Albendazole does, but I don't know what the does is yet.

    -Kathy
     
    Last edited: Mar 21, 2015
  6. Miss Lydia

    Miss Lydia Running over with Blessings Premium Member

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    Well I for one appreciate all the time you put into it and then giving us the info.
     
  7. Skyfire

    Skyfire Chillin' With My Peeps

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    Thank you for the informative post. I'm curious why the first medication is used mostly on livestock, less on pets. Is it just a preference thing or does it matter?
     
  8. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    I have not looked at all the wormers listed, but something like Safeguard is much safer that Valbazen, which is probably one of the reasons. Valbazen has been know to cause a type of anemia in some species and death in crias, doves and pigeons, though Safeguard has also caused death in doves and pigeons according to what I just read.


    -Kathy
     
    Last edited: Mar 21, 2015
  9. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    Albendazole (Valbazen) - Wormer

    Dose for birds is not listed here, but my research has shown that the most effective dose for poultry is 20mg/kg.
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  10. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    Fenbendazole (Safeguard) - Wormer


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