Salmonella Pullorum update

Discussion in 'Emergencies / Diseases / Injuries and Cures' started by chicknmania, Mar 22, 2007.

  1. chicknmania

    chicknmania Crowing

    Jan 26, 2007
    central Ohio
    We finally got the results back from our Necropsy. We do not have Pullorum. Hannah had Avian Tuberculosis. Fortunately this is not regulatory. I found an interesting article about the disease at: Everyone might want to read this because apparently this disease is very common. I'm hoping we were lucky in keeping Hannah primarily confined to one large pen in the barn and later a smaller cage for the duration of the time we had her except for the first three or four months. At this point all of our other birds appear healthy, (knock on wood). . The State of Ohio vets advised us we licked the ILT problem. (yea!)[​IMG] We cannot afford to remove and replace the dirt on our barn floor, and would have no place to put the contaminated dirt, anyway, except on our own property. Also our birds are free-range, so the property is contaminated, anyway. We burned all of Hannah's bedding and the bedding in the big pen, and will sterilize her cage and dishes. Beyond that, all we can do is get them as healthy as possible, according to the State vet, by deworming and treating for lice, etc. I dread putting our young birds back out there after they've been in the house all winter. I would be interested to know if anyone has had experience with this, or has any suggestions.
  2. chicknmania

    chicknmania Crowing

    Jan 26, 2007
    central Ohio
    whoops, the web address screwed up. the last part is ""
  3. Wes in Tx

    Wes in Tx Songster

    Jan 11, 2007
    Glad you found out what she had. So sorry you lost her.

    As for the dirt in the barn what I would do is one of 2 things. The best IMHO would be like the do in commercial broiler facilities and burn the ground good. If you can get a flame thrower or blow toarch that would be great.

    Next if you can't do the above is to order some Oxine or Nolvasan to spray the ground good with. Best is to spray the ground the till it if you can to a depth of 3-4 inches then spray it again and then till in some hydrated lime.

    The Nolvasan is what the State of Texas Animal Health folks use when the depopulate a place. They do the depop and all the disenfecting.
  4. kstaven

    kstaven Crowing

    Jan 26, 2007
    BC, Washington Border
    Being a parrot site I am surprised they didn't mention using virkon to wash everything down with.
    I do know that budgie breeders mix a few gallons of it up and then spray the dirt floors of the outside flights down if there has been a problem.
  5. dlhunicorn

    dlhunicorn Human Encyclopedia

    Jan 11, 2007
    Scroll down to "avian tuberculosis" and you will find the merck manual link:

    A quick summary from The Poultry Site:
    A bacterial infection, caused by Mycobacterium avium, of poultry, game birds, cage birds etc. Morbidity and mortality are high. Transmission is via faecal excretion, ingestion, inhalation, offal and fomites. The disease has a slow course through a flock. The bacterium resists heat, cold, water, dryness, pH changes and many disinfectants.

    Severe loss of weight with no loss of appetite.
    Pale comb.
    Sporadic deaths.
    Post-mortem lesions

    Grey to yellow nodules attached to intestine.
    Granulomas in liver, spleen and many other tissues, even bone marrow.
    Isolation, acid-fast stain in tissues, TB test. Differentiate from Lymphoid leukosis.

    Here is a chart listing the most common diseases and their synonyms

    ...and here an excellent article on avian disease which are transmissable to humans:
    ..."Zoonoses refer to infectious animal diseases that are communicable to humans. The infectious agents can be protozoal, fungal, bacterial, chlamydial or viral. Individual susceptibility and the seriousness of
    these various microbial infections varies with age, health status, immune status (immunodeficient or immunosuppressed), and whether early therapeutic intervention is sought. The ability of a microorganism to make a person sick varies with the virulence of the organism, the dose to which the
    person is exposed, as well as route of infection. Chlamydiosis, salmonellosis, arizonosis, and colibacillosis are the most common of these
    infections. Chlamydiosis, salmonellosis, eastern equine encephalitis and avian tuberculosis may be serious and even life threatening ...............

    Avian Tuberculosis Avian tuberculosis is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium avium which is closely related to the human and bovine tuberculosis bacteria. In birds, M. avium causes a chronic debilitating disease with tubercular nodules. In humans, M. avium infections
    can cause local wound infections with swelling of regional lymph nodes. The infection is most severe in immunocompromised individuals. M. avium is
    spread by ingestion of food or water contaminated by feces from shedder birds. Tuberculous poultry flocks should be depopulated.
    Last edited: Mar 23, 2007
  6. dlhunicorn

    dlhunicorn Human Encyclopedia

    Jan 11, 2007
    I also imagine you are concerned about disinfecting afterwards (there is a lot of misinformation/insufficient information concerning the effectivity (efficacy) of disinfectants) and this is a nice little excerpt addressing that (Candadian source so some of the product names will be different in USA or not available...I myself use VirkonS which is available and in my opinion on of the best allround products on the market)...:
    ..."Killing Infectious Organisms -- Cleaners and Disinfectants

    One of the things I have found most frustrating in the past is understanding exactly what the disinfectant I am using is capable of. The following list of brief definitions are very helpful for analyzing label information.

    High level disinfection: Capable of killing all microorganisms and is equivalent to sterilization when contact is long enough.

    Intermediate level disinfection: Kills all vegetative bacteria and fungi, tuberculosis bacilli and MOST viruses.

    Low level disinfection: Freedom from vegetative bacteria and fungus and most enveloped viruses.

    Sterilization: The destruction of all living microorganisms (all life forms); sterility is an absolute condition.

    Disinfection: The destruction of most harmful microorganisms, especially the vegetative forms, but not necessarily their spores.

    Antiseptic: Inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms but does not necessarily kill them.

    Sanitation: The reduction of the number of bacterial contaminants to a safe level; a sanitizer is not concentrated enough or in contact long enough to achieve disinfection.

    Biostatic: The inhibition of growth, to prevent further contamination, but does not necessarily kill.

    Cidal (suffix): Refers to substances that kill microorganisms. Virucides, bactericide, fungicides, and sporicides.

    Vegetative: Indicating a time when the bacteria is not reproducing.

    Spores: Reproductive body of an organism, to bear or produce spores (like a seed of a plant). Spore forms resist environmental influences, increasing survival. They germinate to a vegetative state when conditions are favorable.

    Enveloped or lipophilic viruses: Surrounded by a lipid (fat) coat. MOST enveloped viruses are less stable in the environment, and more susceptible to disinfection.

    Uneveloped, Hydrophilic or Capsid Viruses: Viruses with a protein coat. MOST unenveloped viruses are more stable in the environment and more resistant to disinfection then enveloped viruses.

    It is often necessary to use several types of chemical disinfects and cleaning procedures in our nurseries. What you need to know when choosing a product for use is the chemical composition of the brand. This is an area in which many of us have made mistakes in the past. It is very easy to be misled by the creative advertising and marketing techniques used by the manufacturers.

    The following is a list of chemical disinfectants that are commonly used in a nursery, and general recommendations for their use. I am including a brand name as a reference that is probably the most familiar, however I am not suggesting that it is the best product. There are often other brands that are equivalent at considerably less money.

    Chlorhexidine (Nolvasan)
    Low level disinfectant, contact time 10 minutes. Used as a disinfectant, and due to its low tissue toxicity, is also used as a skin antiseptic. Often used as a treatment for mild cases of candida, and is thought to slow the spread of some viruses. The recommended dose rate is 10 to 20 cc per gallon of drinking water, and in hand feeding formulas the dose rate is 5cc per gallon of formula. Effective against most gram negative organisms (except Pseudomonas) but is not effective against gram positive cocci. Effective against fungi and most enveloped viruses, but has no residual activity following a single application. Hard water and organic material decrease its effectiveness.

    Recommended Use: As a cleaner/disinfectant it is of little value due to its decreased effectiveness in the presence of organic material and hard water, and poor cleaning properties. It can be used as a daily sanitation level wipe for brooders and housing containers, with chicks present, and as a skin antiseptic to clean up soiled babies due to its low toxicity. Also used in water as a preventative; in water reservoirs of brooders and incubators, in the birds drinking water (10 to 20cc per gallon), and in the hand feeding formula (5 cc per gallon of formula). Long term use in the drinking water (up to 4 years, which I do not recommend to others), that is given to pet/teacher birds residing in our nursery has not caused any problem to our knowledge.

    Quaternary Ammonium/Quats (Roccal)
    Low level disinfectant, contact time 10 minutes. Products vary greatly, some are reasonably good cleaners and some are not. They are ineffective against tubercular bacilli, bacterial spores and most unenveloped viruses (some of the newer Quat products on the market may be more effective as a disinfectant, check the label). Effective against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria, showing a greater activity against gram positive. They are inactivated by soaps, organic matter and hard water. They are very good biostatics and because of the film they leave behind they are said to help block the transfer of organisms from unwashed to washed surfaces.

    Recommended Use: Quat type products are probably the most commonly used in nurseries today (making them likely to be the most misused). Can be used as a daily sanitation level wipe for weaning cages, perches and other surfaces that birds have direct contact with. Products vary greatly, some are good cleaners and some very poor. Because its disinfecting properties are easily inactivated, items should be cleaned, rinsed, and the product reapplied with appropriate contact time being observed.

    70 % Isopropyl Alcohol
    Used at full strength as a skin antiseptic, low level disinfectant at 10 minutes contact time, intermediate level at 30 minutes contact time. Because it evaporates so quickly it is generally not used as a intermediate level disinfectant as repeated applications would be necessary to maintain contact time. It's primarily used as a skin antiseptic and is inactivated by organic matter.

    Recommended Use: Can be used as a daily sanitation level wipe in many areas of the nursery. Very handy for areas like counter tops when you don't have time to come back to clean up after the appropriate contact time; just soak down the area and let evaporate.

    Tamed Iodines (Betadyne)
    A skin antiseptic, a low level disinfectant with a contact time of 10 minutes, and an intermediate level disinfectant with a contact time 30 minutes. Tamed iodines are mostly used as a skin antiseptic. They are somewhat unstable in the presence of organic material. Effective as long as the solution maintains its color. Somewhat effective against spores and unenveloped viruses.

    Recommended Use: Used as a hand soap replacement, diluted as a wash for chicks when necessary, and as a treatment for the umbilicus of newly hatched chicks.

    Bleach (Clorox)
    A low level disinfectant with a contact time of 10 minutes, and an intermediate level disinfectant with a 30 minute contact time. The germicidal activity is dependent upon the PH of the water. As the PH is increased from 6 to 10 the biocidal activity decreases 200 times. Using with hot water decreases the exposure time needed. It has a very short shelf life, stored under ideal conditions its shelf life is about 6 months, however as ambient temperatures increase, its shelf life decreases considerably. It is markedly inactivated by the presence of organic material, some soaps/detergents, and is difficult to work with due to fumes and skin irritation.

    Recommended Use: Due to its short shelf life and many other restrictions it is of questionable value as a disinfectant, and I personally would not rely or recommend its use in the nursery. If used, you will need a chlorine tester to verify freshness of the product. Bleach is also not stable in the presence of a number of soaps and detergents, so if your plans include mixing with a cleaner you will need to retest your finished solution. As a laundry "SANITIZER" the makers of Purex recommend immersing laundry in sanitation solution for at least 10 minutes prior to starting the wash/rinse cycle. For best results no more than 8 lbs. of laundry per each 10 gallons of water". For standard size washing machines use 1 1/4 cups of bleach and for a large capacity washer use 2 cups. As a general use low level disinfectant Purex recommends 3/4 cups of bleach to each gallon of water as a rinse; let stand for 10 minutes. Do not rinse surface with water.

    Phenol Derivatives and Synthetics (1-Stroke Environ)
    An intermediate level disinfectant with a 10 minute contact time. A good housekeeping disinfectant that remains stable in the presence of heat and remains active in the presence of organic matter. The product of choice when cleaning heavily soiled areas. When used as directed it is not irritating to skin, eyes or mucous membranes. However a great deal of care must be used when handling concentrated products; some brands will stain skin and are extremely irritating to skin and mucous membranes.

    Recommended Use: My own experience is limited to one brand (1-Stroke Environ) and I have found it to be a most effective cleaner and disinfectant for general cleaning of walls and floors and other heavily soiled areas (it truly takes the muscle out of cleaning). For general cleaning I use the recommended dilution of 1/2 oz. per gallon of water. For heavily soiled areas I have used stronger solutions but good ventilation and rubber gloves are a must.

    Virkon S
    From England, this is a unique, patented virucidal high to intermediate level disinfectant (Potassium peroxymonosulfate 20.4% Sodium Chloride 1.5%). According to testing conducted in England it is effective against all 17 virus families affecting man and animal, as well as being an effective control for bacteria, fungi, yeasts and mold with a contact time of 10 minutes. It is nonirritating and of exceptionally low toxicity at in use dilutions. Safe and suitable for use with all types of animals and birds. Cleans and disinfects in a single operation and is 90% biodegradable. Stable in the presence of heavy organic soiling and hard water. The dilution rate for general use is 1 part product to 120 parts water with solutions being stable for 2 weeks. In England it is additionally approved for use at various dilutions for the following; sanitizing water systems; continuous water sterilization; fogging; and aerial disinfection to reduce cross infection during disease out breaks (keep in mind it has not been approved in the United States for these uses).

    Recommended Uses: I have found this to be the general disinfectant of choice for our facility. It is a good cleaner, very cost effective, highly concentrated (saves storage space, 1 container makes 42 gallons of disinfectant), non irritating, and very versatile. It is used daily as a quick wipe down cleaning method for weaning cages, food dishes (not water dishes) perches, toys, nursery buckets, and all other surfaces that birds have direct contact with. Additionally it is used for step pans and general disinfecting and as an overnight pre-soak for non-disposable cloth items like towels before they are washed. Overall the product has been very impressive and can replace a variety of products that are commonly used in the nursery.

    2% Gluteraldehyde (Wavicide-01)
    The following information is for Wavicide-01; the time frame and dilution for stable reusable solutions may vary a little with other brands. At full strength it is a sterilant with a contact time of 10 hours and can be reused for 30 days. It is an intermediate level disinfectant with a contact time of 10 minutes, a high level disinfectant at 30 minutes, and can be reused for 42 days. Diluted 1 part Wavicide to 4 parts water it is an intermediate level disinfectant with a contact time of 30 minutes, a low level disinfectant at 5 minutes, and the diluted solution can be reused for 21 days. At full strength 2% gluteraldehydes are irritating to the skin and mucous membranes and the fumes are very irritating to the eyes. Prolonged and repeated contact with skin should be avoided as the possibility of sensitization exists.

    Recommended Use: It is one of the few chemicals available to us that can be (practically) used for sterilization. Used for hand feeding equipment and other items where sterilization is desirable. I find gloves an absolute necessary when working with this product, as well as good ventilation. Due to the high cost, poor cleaning ability, and irritating fumes I do not recommended this type of product for use as a disinfectant.

    Glutaraldehyde Phenol Combinations (Cold Spore)
    They are sterilants with a contact time of 12 hours and a high level disinfectant with a contact time of 10 minutes. Solutions are reusable for 30 days and biodegradable. The glutaraldehyde phenol combinations are equivalent in both cost and activity to the 2% glutaraldehydes with some big advantages. They have a pleasant odor, no irritating fumes, a much higher level of safety, and are one of the only alternatives for people that are sensitive to high levels of glutaraldehydes.

    Recommended Use: Unfortunately these products were just taken off the market. I received the following information from the manufacture of Cold Spore; "The EPA and the FDA have attempted to impose their own new regulatory scheme on the disinfectant/sterilant industry¬ó with each employing its own tests, its own standards, and its own philosophies" These types of products are one of the few that are regulated by two federal agencies in addition to 49 state agencies. The manufacturer of Cold Spore is seeking testing methods that will satisfy both the EPA and FDA (the other manufacturers are likely trying to work this out also). If these products reappear on the market, I would highly recommend them over the use of 2% glutaraldehydes.

    This Sodium Hypochlorite and Citric Acid based product is a single use rapid chemical sterilization designed for heat sensitive instruments (I am only aware of one product that is manufactured under the trade name of Bionox). The product is safe to use on most critical equipment including fiberoptic endoscopes. It is ideal for field use and other situations where in the past sterilization was impractical. Contact time is 20 minutes. Testing revealed that most viruses were killed in 1 to 3 minutes, bacteria in 10 minutes, and fungal pathogens in 10 minutes. The product runs about $10.00 per quart, and while it doesn't have many practical applications for the aviculturists it does for the veterinarian (surgical sexing a group of birds is one of the first thing that comes to mind).
  7. Barnyard Dawg

    Barnyard Dawg Songster

    Feb 7, 2007
    Northern California
    My advice is if you are going to use a chemical disinfectant or cleaner to sanitize your chicken coop please read the Material Safety Data Sheet and use proper care in handling these chemicals they can cause serious health problems if caution is not taken. No matter how safe people tell you they are make sure for yourself.
    Last edited: Mar 23, 2007
  8. chicknmania

    chicknmania Crowing

    Jan 26, 2007
    central Ohio
    Thanks everyone for all the information. I thought of the Oxine already as I can easily get that and know it's popular to use. I also learned about the lime treatment and am considering doing that as it'd be easiest in our circumstances, but I am deep do you have to rototill it before you don't have to worry about them scratching it up again and either ingesting it or getting on their feet or elsewhere? I noticed on a recent warm day we had here that the hens had dug themselves a cooling hole in the barn floor; it was surpisingly deep and they were taking turns getting in it. And a freshly rototilled dirt floor, oh boy! They'd think that was a big treat. My other concerns are: no matter how much we do we will not be able to completely sterilize the barn; I mean there's equipment in it and stored items, and some stuff they have perched on is not cleanable very well (like the rafters); and it's fairly big. Also of course our property is contaminated probably, and our chickens are free range....there's nothing we can do about that. All of our chickens we have now have been exposed to much effect will sterilization have at this point? Our young birds still in the house have had the least exposure. We know the people we got Hannah from fairly well...they have about two hundred chickens, I think, but as far as I know they have not had any outbreaks of anything...both Hannah and Cami came from there, and also our Barred Cochin roo that we've had for two years; they hatched him. And they had Hannah for two years anyway before they gave her to my son. They regularly buy, sell and trade locally. A lot of their chickens are free range. So how is this possible that they have not had an outbreak? Is the disease that slow moving? We have been trying to watch our chickens for signs of illness...none seem to have lost weight at all and Hannah's best friend Cami is actually way too fat...she is about the only one who doesn't leave the barn much, but I think it is because she is fat rather than that she is sick. She is a Mille Fleur d'uccle and has always been a little quiet and not as active as the others...does anyone know if this is a characteristic of that breed? She seems to be more active and cheerful with the weather beginning to improve, and has been going outside a little. Does anyone know if it's even worth considering attempting to have a vet do acid fast stains on the poop of every live chicken we have left. to see if they might be showing signs of the disease? The state vet advised us to just cull them all and start over, but I can't bear to do that unless I have to, and in that case we probably would not be starting over with chickens. I know this is a lot of questions but I really need a lot of help to be as effective as possible. Hope someone can continue answering them!
  9. chicknmania

    chicknmania Crowing

    Jan 26, 2007
    central Ohio
    Thanks I know it's popular too. I haven't researched the cost of anything yet, but that's certainly an option to consider...which would be more effective the apple cider/ bleach, or the oxine?

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