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Worms and Worming - Warning, Graphic Pictures and Videos

Discussion in 'Predators and Pests' started by casportpony, Mar 26, 2016.

  1. casportpony

    casportpony Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    For my 40k post I wanted to post something special, so I decided to start this thread. In it I will share the information I have gathered and and what I have learned from this information. It's a work in progress, so check back often. I hope that many others will join in and share what they know, and those that have questions, please don't be shy, ask away!

    Topics covered will be:

    • Types of poultry worms
    • Types of wormers
    • Correct dosing
    • Choosing an appropriate wormer
    • Worming the different species of birds, might even add a little about mammals. [​IMG]
    • Fecal tests
    • Giving the wormer
    • Worming misinformation (a pet peeve of mine)

    From Farad:
    http://www.usfarad.org/drug-wdi-faqs.html


    Fenbendazole
    Fenbendazole is approved as an oral suspension for laying hens in the United Kingdom for treatment of gastro-intestinal nematodes at a dose of 1mg/kg/bw for 5 days and has a zero day egg and six day meat withdrawal. In the US, since there is no tolerance, this withdrawal needs to be extended. Submit a withdrawal request to FARAD.

    Piperazine
    There is one study looking at piperazine residues in the eggs of treated hens. Piperazine is approved for use in laying hens in Australia and Canada at doses ranging from 130 to 200mg/kg/body weight one time and a zero day egg and meat withdrawal. Because of the lack of a tolerance in the US, FARAD recommends a 17 day egg withdrawal for piperazine used at broiler label doses in laying hens.

    Ivermectin
    There are limited studies available in the literature on the depletion of ivermectin residues from eggs. Given the limited studies and data available, FARAD cannot provide a blanket withdrawal interval recommendation and individuals are requested to submit a withdrawal interval request to FARAD. Submit a withdrawal request to FARAD.




    Types of worms



    Pictures from the Veterinary Parasitology Reference Manual - Fifth Edition

    Roundworm
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    Cecal worm
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    Capillary worms
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    Gapeworm
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    Tapeworm
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
    Picture by BYC's BeeKissed:
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
    In the spoiler is a copy and paste from http://parasitipedia.net/index.php?
    option=com_content&view=article&id=2655&Itemid=2933
    AS you can see below, there are many
    Internal parasites (endoparasites, worms, helminths)

    Roundworms (nematodes)

    • Acuaria spp ~ Dispharynx ~ Synhimanthus spp. $. Gizzard worms. Gizzard, esophagus and proventriculus. Can be a problem in endemic regions, mainly in birds kept outdoors.
    • Ascaridia spp. $$$. Chicken roundworms. Small intestine. A serious problem worldwide, also in confined operations.
    • Capillaria spp. $$. Hairworms. Crop, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine.
    • Heterakis spp. $$$$. Cecal worms. Cecum. Probably the most threatening worms in all kind of poultry operations worldwide.
    • Oxyspirura spp. $. Fowl eyeworms. Eyes. Usually a secondary problem in individual birds kept outdoors.
    • Strongyloides spp. $$. Threadworms, pinworms. Small intestine. Can be a serious problem worldwide.
    • Subulura spp. $. Cecum and small intestine. A secondary problem in birds kept outdoors worldwide.
    • Syngamus trachea. $$. Gapeworms. Trachea, bronchi. A serious problem in birds kept outdoors in endemic regions.
    • Tetrameres spp. $. Proventriculus and esophagus. Can be a problem in endemic regions, mainly in outdoor opertaions.

    Tapeworms (cestodes)

    • Amoebotaenia cuneata = sphenoides. $. Small intestine. Usually a secondary issue in most poultry operations
    • Choanotaenia infundibulum. $. Small intestine. Usually not a major issue in modern poultry operations.
    • Davainea proglottina. $. Minute tapeworms. Small intestine. Can be a problem in birds kept outdoors in endemic regions.
    • Raillietina spp. $$. Small intestine. The most frequent tapeworm in poultry, however normally not a major problem.

    Flukes (trematodes, flatworms)

    • Prosthogonimus spp. $. Oviduct flukes. Oviduct, bursa of Fabricius. Can be a serious threat for birds kept outdoors in endemic regions.

    Pictures of Worms

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    Possible damage due to cecal worms
    [​IMG]

    Types of Wormers

    Albendazole - 100 mg/ml
    [​IMG]

    Albendazole 113.6mg/ml
    [​IMG]



    -Kathy
     
    Last edited: Feb 15, 2017
    2 people like this.
  2. Mrs. K

    Mrs. K Overrun With Chickens

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    this will be a great reference
     
  3. Folly's place

    Folly's place Overrun With Chickens

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    Nice work, but the problem is in choosing an appropriate product, and still using/ selling eggs. Only piperazine is approved for use, and it only kills roundworms. Ivermectin and fenbendazole work very well, but aren't approved and so are totally off- label, with no approved egg withdrawal period. Farad.org is a great source of information that's current and lists approved drugs. The list keeps getting shorter, unfortunately. Mary
     
  4. casportpony

    casportpony Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    14 January 2016

    Merck Animal Health Launches Safe-Guard[​IMG] AquaSol

    Highly Effective Dewormer Approved by FDA for use in Poultry

    MADISON, N.J., January 14, 2016 – Merck Animal Health (known as MSD Animal Health outside of the United States and Canada) today announced the introduction of Safe-Guard[​IMG] AquaSol (fenbendazole oral suspension) for use in U.S. poultry operations. Safe-Guard AquaSol is indicated for the treatment and control of adult Ascaridia galli in broiler chickens and replacement chickens intended to become breeding chickens, as well as for the treatment and control of adult A.galli and Heterakis gallinarum in breeding chickens.
    “Managing gastrointestinal health properly results in better overall performance – uniformity, productivity and profitability,” said Ivan Alvarado, D.V.M., Director, Poultry Technical Services, Merck Animal Health. “Effective management also helps to minimize the economic impact that comes as a result of production losses, which is a priority for all of our customers.
    “Safe-Guard products have a long history of proven results and we are excited to bring a new poultry formulation to the industry – one that provides a unique uniform treatment for the entire flock and has been approved by the FDA for use in chickens.”
    Safe-Guard AquaSol is produced with an innovative wet-milling technology, which produces a highly stable suspension that can be conveniently administered through drinking water for a short, five consecutive-day treatment period.1 The product’s smaller particle sizes help to prevent sedimentation and clogged pipes, filters or nipple drinkers.1 There is no pre-slaughter withdrawal period when used according to the product label.
    Safe-Guard AquaSol is available in 1 liter and 1 gallon presentations. For more information about this product, contact your Merck Animal Health sales representative.
    Safety Information:
    No withdrawal period is required when used according to the label. Do not use the drug in laying hens and replacement chickens intended to become laying hens. Consult your veterinarian for assistance in the diagnosis, treatment and control of parasitism.
    About Merck Animal Health
    Today's Merck is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. Merck Animal Health, known as MSD Animal Health outside the United States and Canada, is the global animal health business unit of Merck. Through its commitment to the Science of Healthier Animals[​IMG], Merck Animal Health offers veterinarians, farmers, pet owners and governments one of the widest range of veterinary pharmaceuticals, vaccines and health management solutions and services. Merck Animal Health is dedicated to preserving and improving the health, well-being and performance of animals. It invests extensively in dynamic and comprehensive R&D resources and a modern, global supply chain. Merck Animal Health is present in more than 50 countries, while its products are available in some 150 markets. For more information, visit www.merck-animal-health.com or connect with us on LinkedIn and Twitter.
    Forward-Looking Statement of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, N.J., USA
    This news release of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, N.J., USA (the “company”) includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are based upon the current beliefs and expectations of the company’s management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. If underlying assumptions prove inaccurate or risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements.
    Risks and uncertainties include but are not limited to, general industry conditions and competition; general economic factors, including interest rate and currency exchange rate fluctuations; the impact of pharmaceutical industry regulation and health care legislation in the United States and internationally; global trends toward health care cost containment; technological advances, new products and patents attained by competitors; challenges inherent in new product development, including obtaining regulatory approval; the company’s ability to accurately predict future market conditions; manufacturing difficulties or delays; financial instability of international economies and sovereign risk; dependence on the effectiveness of the company’s patents and other protections for innovative products; and the exposure to litigation, including patent litigation, and/or regulatory actions.
    The company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Additional factors that could cause results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements can be found in the company’s 2014 Annual Report on Form 10-K and the company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) available at the SEC’s Internet site (www.sec.gov).

    1Data on file. Merck Animal Health.

    -Kathy
     
  5. casportpony

    casportpony Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    Even piperazine (Wazine) is not approved for use in egg layers in the US. I think the only one approved for use in laying hens is hygromycin b (Rooster Booster), but that will not be available in 2017 due to the new regulation.

    Both Flubenvet (flubendazole) and AquaSol (fenbendazole) are approved for use in egg laying hens in the UK, though probably only when used as labeled. As labeled, AquSol only treats large roundworms and cecal worms, it does *not* treat gapes and capillary worms.


    http://fs-1.5mpublishing.com/images/MSD/PDF/PAP PBulletin v8c FINAL.pdf
    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]


    -Kathy
     
    Last edited: Apr 15, 2016
  6. aart

    aart Chicken Juggler! Premium Member

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    Cool!
    Maybe add captions to 'pics of worms' in first post describing type of worm and anatomical location?
     
    1 person likes this.
  7. Folly's place

    Folly's place Overrun With Chickens

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    It's very frustrating! I understand the concerns about drug overuse and parasite resistance, BUT the commercial flocks are short lived and indoors all the time, so at lower risk for parasites. Our home flocks, who have a better longer life, are going to be exposed to mites, lice, and intestinal parasites, and we all need products to deal with these issues. It seems like something could be done to help us practice good husbandry without going against 'the rules'. Mary
     
  8. casportpony

    casportpony Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    So I just noticed that Gail Damerow's book suggests giving large amounts of 1% ivermectin to chickens. It says to give bantams 0.1ml and 0.25ml to larger birds. Anyone know where she got this info?

    -Kathy
     
  9. Folly's place

    Folly's place Overrun With Chickens

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    I'm not sure where she got her information either. I use about 1 ml. per 80 lbs. body weight, so about half her recommended dosage. Seems to work fine! Mary
     
  10. aart

    aart Chicken Juggler! Premium Member

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    Email her and ask?....say maybe "how do you mix oil base product with water?"

    Wouldn't be the first or last error in a chicken book....even her's.
     
    Last edited: Mar 29, 2016

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