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QUECHUA /Tojuda/ Ameraucana/ Easter Eggers{ In vino veritas - Page 2

post #11 of 153
Thread Starter

Lets delve a bit further into the origins of the Desert Isles fowl carried by Yapese speaking Micronesian seafarers to the Quechuan speaking Indians of South America.
Malagasy Ganoi (Austronesian Fowl Gallus giganteus ) courtesy Ultimate Fowl
Austronesian Chief
This is a map of peoples that speak Austronesian languages. Austronesian Culture  was a primary foundation of the younger Polynesian Culture. The Austronesians originated in South East Asia but they expanded their culture by boat all the way to Madagascar and the Comoros Islands off the coast of Africa. They brought back plants and animals from Madagascar and the Comoros Islands to Malaysia and onwards. Their two most important domestic animal species were the Vietnamese Pig and the Austronesian Fowl (Giant Gamefowl) Gallus giganteaus

We're all familiar with the debate about Polynesian contact with South America prior to European arrival.
Firstly, we often hear the term Polynesian  without understanding that at least three distinct and equally ancient ethnic cultures provided the foundation of newer younger mixing pot of a culture that is the source of the term.
In other words, the Polynesian people and Polynesian culture are the result of admixture between Melanesian ; Micronesian  and Austronesian  peoples.
The three most prominent surviving cultures of Oceania and the Pacific. Austronesian culture has been subsumed by Polynesian in the eastern territories but one point in time,Austronesians were the dominant seafaring culture from Madagascar off the coast of Africa  all the way to the Eastern Pacific off the coast of South America.

It would appear that the first seafarers to reach many islands in remote Oceania were Melanesians, followed shortly after by Micronesians and eventually, and even more successfully, by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Each brought their own respective "food baskets" with them and naturalized these plants and animals on the islands that they would call home. Each group would eventually be inundated and or expelled by the next and so the most remote islands became the strong holds of specific ethnic types whereas islands that were more easily reached were melting pots. Irregardless of ethnic inhabitant, the islands were homes to populations of dogs, pigs and junglefowl carried there by seafarers from different regions within Indonesia, Malaysia and Melanesia.

Melanesians by and large did not carry Junglefowl but they did carry unique dogs , pigs, taro and banana.

Micronesians carried Junglefowl of at least two different varieties, one of which (Arjuna Bekisar) being of hybrid origin.
Micronesian Ayam Bekisar ( Green JF by Indonesian Red Jf with no or very little domestic fowl genes)

Austronesians carried at least four different varieties of Junglefowl, three of which ( Austronesian G. giganteus; Wallikikilli Basket Bantam and two different forms of Ketawa) being of hybrid origin.
Wallikikilli Basket Bantams ( Sri Lanka Junglefowl sires in ancestry)

The origins of the Austronesian Game Fowl Gallus giganteaus are a bit of a mystery but it seems that they are likely descended of at least two extinct island forms. The birds probably originated on the Comoros Islands and there may well have been more than one form. Both forms were at least seasonally naked necked. Both exhibited a single gular lappet. One was prominently crested. Both lacked wattles. Having never encountered humans before, these enormous fowl were fearless. The birds were introduced by the Austronesians to Madagascar and Reunion shortly after their discovery. They were subsequently carried by Austronesian seafarers to South East Asia and beyond. The Austronesian Fowl is the ancestor of the Malay, Saipan and other giant game breeds. They are one of the foundations of all domestic utility breeds. Transplanted to desert islands and crossed with Asian junglefowl of more typical dimensions, the Austronesian fowl quickly shrank in in size. All naked necked, frizzled, and crested breeds have Austronesian ancestors at their genetic foundation. We'll discuss the role of the Austronesian fowl in the ancestry of South American breeds in depth in the Mapuche thread. It should suffice to say that our familiar Quechua has a bit of Austronesian fowl in its ancestry and that these genetic founders were established first on the desert isles of the South Pacific and Oceania.

While I've posted a number of photos of males of this archaic type, it was actually females (pictured below) that were amongst the founders of the Yapese Desert Isles stock that were eventually transported to N.W. South America.
Ayam Ketawa Dijual (Bekisar X Austronesian).
Ayam Bekisar Hutan (Bekisar X Wallikikilli X Austronesian)
Ayam Ketawa Hutan (Wallikikilli Basket Bantams X Austronesian).
The composite of all three of the ancient original cultures is what we term as Polynesian. Nevertheless, because of the different strata, the different points in history in which the respective ancestral cultures arrived on these remote islands, we have livestock and plant cultivars, which can be linked directly with one or more of the respective founder cultures.

For example, the Austronesians carried at least one of the giant flightless junglefowl from Madagascar and or the Comoros to Saipan; to Tonga and Samoa.
They also carried the Basket Bantam from Sri Lanka to Marquesas. 

The Micronesians carried Bekisar from their homelands in Indonesia all the way to Ponape and to Easter Island. They also carried the Bekisar with them to the Marquesas Islands. The Micronesians arrived in Marquesas long before the Austronesians who largely displaced them. Austronesian ethnocide/genocide against the Micronesian peoples may have obliged the Micronesians to move further out into the sea. This is likely how  and why they ended up on Easter Island, which was not incidentally, inhabited by the Micronesians several centuries before the arrival of the Austronesians. The Micronesians introduced their uniquely Micronesian fowl to Easter Island. A topic which is often discussed is how successive waves of new migrants carried their own culturally/genetically distinctive fowl leading to the formation of well-defined breeds even on this most remote of populated islands in the world. This generation of different well-demarcated breeds and even races of fowl on Easter Island was a consequence of chickens being the only domestic animal on the island- the only land animal larger than a small lizard. Austronesians carried in their larger diversity of archaic chicken races- the naked neck giant; the two different Ketawa types and the Wallikikilli Basket Bantams not to mention the mainland form of the Red Junglefowl.
The Micronesians had probably only carried the Bekisar and the Indonesian Red Junglefowl. The Micronesians lived on an Easter Island (Rapa Nui) covered in lush temperate araucaria and tree fern forests. They hunted seals and dolphins by boat. They may even have had pigs and dogs. Their Micronesian fowl had probably reverted to the wild. Once the Austronesians arrived they quickly denuded the island of all tree cover. The peoples farmed similar crops and both became almost entirely dependent of chicken farming for protein.
Melanesian peoples
Photo removed for content

Micronesian peoples

Austronesian peoples

This issue of displacement and replacement is important for us to understand. When Micronesians arrived on an island with crops, pigs and fowl from Indonesia, they set up what amounted to be an Indonesian colony on an uninhabited land. ( Of course over the course of history, we can be sure the Micronesians displaced many Melanesian populations as well.) The pigs and fowl went wild and some sort of equilibrium was met ,eventually, with the Micronesians settling down to their normal way of life, fishing and farming in the jungles.
When Austronesians came, carrying their own respective food baskets from Malaysia and beyond, they displaced the Micronesians and overran all that the Micronesians had managed to establish.
The pigs the Austronesians carried with them were of a different species as were their fowl. There were also many more Austronesians arriving than there had ever been Micronesians. The Austronesians were able to outcompete the Micronesians on all fronts. Their pigs become the dominant genotype on the islands as did their fowl- at least temporarily because as time passed, the ecology and climate of these islands proved to be more formidable than perhaps the Austronesians were prepared for.

Whereas the Micronesians lived in small populations and survived on relatively little, the Austronesians had a larger footprint. They wiped out their ecosystems in no time.
Typhoons roll into these regions every few decades and the Austronesians were ill equipped to deal with the aftermath of these incredible storms. It is simply more difficult to find food and shelter for a larger population of people, especially after you've denuded the ecosystem entirely.  These storms by the way are the defining ecological force of these islands. Like fierce snow storms and long winters define landscapes in some places in North America, the Typhoons are responsible for the shape that life takes on these islands. Every plant and animal must be adapted to survive these storms and thrive in their aftermaths. Those species that cannot, die off- they become extinct.

Many islands temporarily inhabited by successive waves of one culture or another were eventually abandoned due to these once in a century storms, often followed by war and destruction, slave raids between competing peoples and tribes.  That left the pigs, dogs and fowl to fend for themselves. These animals were generally composites, descended of progenitors descended from founders that each peoples carried to that specific island. Selective advantages of the wild ancestors of some of these feral castaways would increase the survivability of a few populations. The genetics of those populations would eventually become dominant lineages until humans once again arrived carrying new animals with them. For example, feral pigs derived of wild Indonesian ancestors may have had better equipped teeth that enabled them to forage on specific roots and thus water on more arid islands. The feral pigs derived of wild Vietnamese ancestors, which inhabit much wetter jungle habitat than Indonesian wild pigs, may have lacked this adaptive trait. Those individuals (all or most of mixed ancestry) that lacked the special digging apparatus died out of thirst but their siblings exhibiting the trait survived.
This is just a theoretical example but I think you can appreciate the general point.
Polynesian peoples

Each of the three different seafaring groups contributed something of vital importance to the Polynesian culture.
The Melanesians contributed vitally important crops including taro, banana and yam. They also brought the dog and the Papuan pig.
Melanesians lived primarily on what they cultivated from wild and semi-domestic plants and animals from the forest.
The Micronesians contributed the first domesticated animals with "sea legs" including the Indonesian pig, and the Indonesian Junglefowl(s).
They also contributed crops including the breadfruit and coconut. Micronesians lived largely on what they fished out of the ocean.
Austronesians were more involved with selective breeding of their Vietnamese and Comoros Islands pigs and with their diverse chicken races.
They also propagated medicinal plants for example ginger and turmeric.

The Polynesians accrued the crops, livestock species and specialized breeds; the folklore, astronomical insight and technologies of all three preceding cultures.

I know there is a theory out there that the Micronesians are the babies with the Melanesian and Polynesian older. If we include the Marquesan Islanders as Micronesians, which we must because of their crops and livestock species, we acknowledge that the ancestors of the people of Easter Island, Hawaii  perhaps even the Maori came from Marquesas.
This would make the Micronesians the oldest children on the Pacific.

post #12 of 153
Thread Starter 

I know you are waiting for me to get to the origins of the Quechua and its progenitor the Desert Isles fowl so here goes:
Rooster Feather Headdress from Marquesas Islands

We've touched a bit on what the Micronesian and Austronesian cultures contributed to ancient poultry farming. The Micronesians were not as involved with selective breeding so much as they were maintaining lines. The Austronesians on the other hand were very involved with selective breeding. They were producing new strains and trading these new types throughout their ever expanding territories.
Male Sri Lanka Junglefowl were one of the primary progenitors of the Basket Bantam, an archaic breed that was very popular amongst later seafarers because of their tameness, small size, year long egg production, and unusual colouration ( white plumage then uncommon in domestic fowl was fairly common). The Basket Bantam was also notable for its often lacking a tail.  To be clear, no female Sri Lanka junglefowl was ever included in the formation of the Basket Bantam. Only the male of the species could be convinced to breed as a domestic hen. The hybrid between Sri Lanka Junglefowl male and domestic female produced the morph the ancient Austronesian colonies of Sri Lanka desired. As infertility of the hybrids was a major obstacle in generating a proper strain, the first few dozen generations must have been taxing. The ancients were excited about the tiny size of the hybrids, their lack of a parson's nose or alternatively a strange vertical, squirrel like tail. The hybrid would also generate white sports and at this point in time and history, white chickens were almost completely unknown. The most prized birds were doted on until chicks were produced from the one or two crossbred, backcrossed hybrids and these more or less fertile generations were then bred interse. Once the strain was fertile the lineage was considered a treasured success.
Nevertheless, the peacomb sail and facial feathering of the female Sri Lanka JF would become dominant traits amongst its descendants including the Colloncas and the Desert Isles Fowl. The females of the Basket Bantam were largely sterile but produced eggs all year round and daily. Successive backcrossing with domestic females would produce a new strain or variety that laid prolifically and were often white.  The birds brought a high price in trade. Crossed with the Austronesian giant game fowl females, the Basket Bantam produced an enormous rooster with alaughing crow .Once a strain was established that could breed they were maintained in large bamboo baskets hence their name. They were considered more valuable than jade to seafarers because they could be crowded, roosters together with hens, and provide food for long sea journeys.Their vocalizations on long sea journeys may have been considered good omens as well as helped keep sailboats in an armada within hearing range all hours of the day and night.
The male Green Junglefowl was likewise a primary founder of the Ayam Bekisar. Only the males of this strange hybrid were transported by seafarers as the females are sterile.The bekisars were integral components of sea travel as the crowing of the males kept the boats in hearing distance from one another .
The combination of the different hybrid "singing" roosters' crowing  was likely of high spiritual-religious significance in the belief systems of the seafarers.

The birds were also capable of detecting land long before their human captors. As these birds were of such spirituo-religious significance to the Micronesians they were often turned free upon reaching the islands.
Because each boat might carry five or more bekisar the hybrid males made up a large percentage of breeding males on each island where the Micronesians settled.
The female Green Junglefowl trait of densely feathered throat - the curious velveteen patch below her eye that insulates the ear and face-these traits would become dominant in subsequent progeny of bekisars. As mentioned earlier, females descended of Bekisars are invariably sterile when bred back to either parental species ( Red JF or Green JF), curiously, the females of the Basket Bantam produce fertile daughters when bred to male Bekisar. Consequently, Bekisar Basket Bantam composite populations would become the dominant genotype on Marquesas from which they were carried to other islands, including small islands in the Koro Sea where their flocks were joined by Austronesian Fowl- those strange ancestors of the enormous game chickens.
Like the Green Junglefowl, the Malagasy Fowl carried by Austronesians throughout South East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific, also exhibits a single gular lappet versus two well defined wattles. Females exhibit a similar subauricular ruff that is even more extensive than that of the female Green Junglefowl.
Eastern Austronesian Hen exhibiting triangular velvet patch of filoplumes "sub auricular ruff" protecting ears and face against moisture, wind and temperature.

We can imagine that Austronesian fowl had a rougher time than the smaller more gracile junglefowl hybrids but their genes are nonetheless well-represented. It would appear that female Austronesians were the ancestors of many an island population. This may be because they were already an admixture between Red JF and Austronesian Fowl before they arrived. Regardless, they become important founders on many of these remote islands. However, on the most isolated least hospitable islands, the surviving populations of fowl tended to be highly miniaturized composites. Their ancestors were largely those strange archaic hybrids because the wet forest adapted Red Junglefowl just didn't survive well in these environments. This is obviously not the case in Hawaii and other lush environments where the Red JF thrived.

Edited by Resolution - 9/27/10 at 4:23pm
post #13 of 153

Wow!! Resolution, What a goldmine of info you have provided! I have been raising blue-egg layers( EE's, Americana's, whatever you might call them) since the early '70's. Only time I have had to introduce new blood was after a predator disaster and tried to obtain replacements from my old bloodlines whenever possible. I can see very much resemblance in the photos you provided as to color and body structure. Also thanks for the inclusion of info on the Quail D'Anver's. At one time I raised them and thought it rather odd that their muffs/ beard and body color had similarities to my blue egg layers. BTW, if my memory serves me well back in the '70's my original stock were sold to me as "Araucana's". Thanks again for you research, makes great reading!

Mountain home to too many sheep, fainting goats, mini- donkeys, BFCM's, EE's and genuine Araucana's
Mountain home to too many sheep, fainting goats, mini- donkeys, BFCM's, EE's and genuine Araucana's
post #14 of 153

I guess, there may be some confusion with the Quechua, because the ones i have tried to get my hands on are nothing like these. i forget what they look like, but they do not have tails they are tailless.

and then there is the Quatro(spelling?) that have tufts and lay blue eggs ( they are not Arauacanas ) any ways.

Fundy Poultry - Breeding pure utility Large Fowl Welsummers,Light Sussex, and more breeds in 2014/2015.  We breed poultry the way farmers bred them hundreds of years ago. When you buy chicks,started birds, or adults from us they will be productive.


Fundy Poultry - Breeding pure utility Large Fowl Welsummers,Light Sussex, and more breeds in 2014/2015.  We breed poultry the way farmers bred them hundreds of years ago. When you buy chicks,started birds, or adults from us they will be productive.

post #15 of 153
Thread Starter 

Desert Isles Fowl

The following photos are not of Quechua but rather the Quechua fowl's progenitor  the Yapese and Koro Sea Fowl native to Desert Islands in Oceania and the Eastern South Pacific.

I apologize for the quality of these photos. It was quite dark and they were taken by an I-phone.
This specimen is a composite of the best possible genetics. He would ostensibly be used to to increase egg hue and survivability; improve voice and basically erase some deleterious genes of overly inbred and overly domesticated "improved" lines of any Quechua or Desert Isles stock.

To recap: A Desert Isles Fowl is basically a Miniaturized junglefowl of hybrid ancestry that has through long periods of isolation and severe weather; lack of water; paucity of food; nest predation by sea birds and unique genotype of founders, has become its own semi-species.

So what exactly is this strange creature? You know a few breeds of this type and probably had no idea they belonged to this archaic race of fowl.
"Quail Bantam" introduced to Europe during the 18th century by Dutch explorers. The level of domestic refinement of the Belgian Quail d'Anver Bantams has carried them very far from their ancestry. They might be considered the "toy miniature" of the Desert Isles/Yapese/Quechua races. Desert Isles and true Quechua carry the tail horizontally. The d'Anver is a very long way from where it began. Recombining it with Ameraucana or Quechua is working against the objectives of conservation breeding of both.
Excellent North American Quechua{ Razor Family Farms lineage.
North American Quechua Perfection-Marc Tacoma lineage

Like the Quail dAnver Bantam, the Ameraucana is derived of Desert Isles founder stock.

2. What is their relationship to the Araucana and other breeds?

The Desert Isles Fowl share one important ancestor with the Colloncas, which is in turn the progenitor of the "Araucana". That ancestor is the Basket Bantam, which was carried from Sri Lanka along with turmeric and other medicinal plants by Austronesians and Tamil traders to Sumatra and beyond. Austronesians carried Basket Bantams to Easter Island where they would become the ancestors of the original Chilean fowl. Meanwhile, Yapenese seafarers carried Desert Isles fowl, with some Basket Bantam ancestry, to Peru.

It was not until the mid 1900's that Quechua were interbred with Colloncas in order to introduce the blue egg trait, which is now a dominant. The original egg colour was likely pinkish or greyish, yellowish in some birds. Regardless, the Quechua produces some of the most vivid eggs today.

To answer the question, the Quechua is a cousin of the Araucana but really its own unique race deserving conservation.

3. Are Murray McMurray or other hatchery stock worthy of conservation?

Of course. They represent new heirloom lineages - ideal for the creation of founder flocks. It is up to you to keep a closed flock. My suggestion is to order only female hatchery stock of Ameraucana and locate roosters of known provenance - either Rapa Nui or true Quechua to 'sweeten the pot' that is heat up the blood of the superfluously "improved"
hatchery stock. Keep the flock closed and over the next many generations select for the individuals that produce the best eggs and roosters that tolerate one another in close confinement. This is critical.
Also, the crow should be different from the typical cock a doodle doo. You will know what I mean -some roosters will have unique crows- save those regardless of what they look like.

4. Where are the best lines of Quechua in this country?
I think Murray McMurray and Cackle Hatchery have the best North American Quechua stock. The bantam Ameraucana stock appears to be developing selective breeding regimes that conserve some of the original Montane traits.

There are some really nice Bolivian and Argentinian lines out there as well.  Write me personally and I'll send you the addresses of reputable poultiers that you can order chicks from for next year.
A word of warning, if you are a con artist or any kind of thief do not bother contacting me. I must put that out there as our farm collective was recently defrauded of thousands of dollars of invaluable stock. That party just took off with the best lines of Bolivian Black Quechua in the country.
Black Quechua

The recombination or composite of Desert Isles/Koro Sea fowl (like these photographed directly above) with actual Bolivian Quechua are loosely defined as "Violaceous Olmec".
Selectionists looking for gene stock to improve their World Fair Quechua/Ameraucana are generally looking for Olmec because they contain the best of both archaic types.
They produce the most unusual egg shell colours.

It should be clear however that the original Quechua was not a blue or green egg producer. This occurred only after Mapuche speaking Indians from Southern Western South America (Chile) began trading their native fowl with those of the Quechua speakers.  As many of the Peruvian and Aymara stocks produce flower pot red, rose pink and even lilac, and/or pale yellow tinted egg shells, it is likely that the original Quechua also produced these egg hues. This may be one reason why the Quechua often produce some of the most vivid coloured eggs, often slightly more aqua or greenish than the Chilean races like the Colloncas and the occasional tuft crested Mapuche line that produces tinted eggs.
This map represents Indian tribes of Peru that have had no or only extremely limited contact with Europeans or Westerners. Curiously, semi-domestic fowl are quite common in some villages that have had limited contact with outsiders. The Indians of neighboring tribes that have had contact with westerners have names for their chickens that are not derived of Spanish, Portuguese or English. The words for chicken, rooster, chick, hen, egg, and the various breeds are of Quechua origin. More interestingly, many of these words are highly similar to Austronesian words.  Other words for chicken, rooster, chick, hen, and egg appear to be more similar to Micronesian words.
Peruvian Indians of an unknown tribe hunting.
This may suggest that both Micronesians and Austronesians arrived in South America with their respective fowl and that the descendants of the fowl and the seafarers are still present in the most remote regions.
Aweti Indians words for chicken are phonetically akin  to Micronesian.
Murunahua Indians words for chicken are phonetically similar to Austronesian.
Aymara Indians words for chicken are similar Austronesian.
Quechua Indian words are a combination of both.

Edited by Resolution - 9/27/10 at 8:06pm
post #16 of 153
Thread Starter

Originally Posted by call ducks 

I guess, there may be some confusion with the Quechua, because the ones i have tried to get my hands on are nothing like these. i forget what they look like, but they do not have tails they are tailless.

and then there is the Quatro(spelling?) that have tufts and lay blue eggs ( they are not Arauacanas ) any ways.

I'm just about to broach the subject of the Colloncas de Quechua ( tailless Quechua that lays blue eggs) as well as the Colloncas de Quechua de Aretes and the Quechua de Aretes, ( tufted /tailed Quechua that produces blue eggs).

It's important that we make something very clear here. In Indian villages there is no such thing as a cull per se.
If twelve chicks hatch from twelve eggs from let's say a composite of Quechua, Quetero and Colloncas- =" Andes"-
and eight chicks take after the Quechua, the rest being one interesting composite or another, the bird is not culled. It is taken to market and given the descriptor - for example Colloncas de Quechua. That means a tailless bird with the winterized face of the Quechua and that almost invariably produces blue eggs. It doesn't matter that it hatched out of a father that looked just like what we call " Araucana" with tufts and no tail- and that his mother looked like a big Easter Egger. If he is tailless and without ear tufts- and with the auricular ruff covering ears- continuing under the eyes- with a big puff of insulative down at the throat- that's called a Collonas de Quechua.
In North America or Europe we need to get with the program. If it is the USA its a North American CdQ.
Colloncas de Quechua
Colloncas de Quechua de Aretes
N.A. Quechua de Aretes

I think my personal favorite is the Quechua de Aretes

The Quetero is the where the tufts originated in the Quechua de Aretes ( aka United Kingdom Araucana) as well as the Colloncas de Aretes ( aka North American Araucana) but it is on its own a very unique race unto itself- one that deserves its own space and conservation efforts.

Edited by Resolution - 9/30/10 at 2:44am
post #17 of 153

Very interesting read.  I have and planning on raising my Easter Eggers as pure as possible.  However I will not be using any of those big ugly roosters on my hens.  Sorry I don't mean to offend anyone by calling them ugly but I think they are.  My current stock is 6 pullets from Cackle hatchery and 3 pullets fro TSC (via Privett Hatchery) and 1 Blue and Red rooster that I found at our local fair.  He of course wass shown as Ameraucana but I think that he is EE.
     I would love to have this article in continious form and not broken up it makes for an easier read.

post #18 of 153
Thread Starter 
Originally Posted by Chickanmanfromarkansas 

Very interesting read.  I have and planning on raising my Easter Eggers as pure as possible.  However I will not be using any of those big ugly roosters on my hens.  Sorry I don't mean to offend anyone by calling them ugly but I think they are.  My current stock is 6 pullets from Cackle hatchery and 3 pullets fro TSC (via Privett Hatchery) and 1 Blue and Red rooster that I found at our local fair.  He of course wass shown as Ameraucana but I think that he is EE.
     I would love to have this article in continious form and not broken up it makes for an easier read.

I don't disagree about the "big ugly roosters". I've never seen one of these hens that are not lovely as the day is long. For whatever reason, the males that develop from this same stock a huge, ugly and many are pathological rapists, which I won't tolerate.

Younger roosters tend to be bad about this regardless of breed or lineage but the big commercial hatchery stock roosters are just brutal.

I would look around at there and treat yourselves to a really good rooster.

I'm sorry about broken up cyber article but it's difficult to edit so much text in one continuous post.

post #19 of 153

Rumpless, bearded and muffed.

post #20 of 153
Thread Starter 

Beautiful Colloncas  Quechua!

Edited by Resolution - 10/8/10 at 10:04am
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