BackYard Chickens › Learning Center Articles › Hatching Eggs 101

Hatching Eggs 101

 

PS.... I am currently on the thread listed below....

don't be afraid to join us for your hatch, or to learn or start a bator build!

I WISH I HAD THAT OPPORTUNITY!  dont hesitate to pop on the thread and ask for help....

Click HERE: INCUBATING w/FRIENDS! come hatch, learn, Chat, Meet new Friends!

 UPDATE:  I have pulled extremely helpful NOTES, LINKS & Informational Post Links from the incubation thread for EVERYONE'S convenience and will continue to put them HERE:  http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/incubating-w-friends-helpful-notes-links-informational-post-links

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incubation Notes, Images, Videos & Links

Including SHIPPED EGGS INCUBATION Techniques.

 

 

www.facebook.com/SallySunshinePoultry

BYC Member VIP Interview - Sally Sunshine

 

1000

 

 Expected Hatch Rate

Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched, or even after for that matter!

Shipped eggs have a MUCH lower hatch rate.

The percent hatchability in the commercial poultry industry ranges from 78-88%.

SHIPPED EGGS

Shipped Eggs = Change Of Plans! post #53845

REQUEST HOW YOU WANT YOUR eggs SHIPPED PEOPLE!!!!  

HOW TO REQUEST AND SHIP EGGS Sally Sunshine Way...

HOWTOREQUESTANDSHIPEGGSSallySunshineWay.docx 940k .docx file

COLD? REQUESTING HEAT PACKS discussion post #32219

Heat packs for shipping animals/etc http://www.tsksupply.com/categories/Heat-Packs/

 

Percent Fertility is the percentage of fertile eggs of all eggs set.

% Fertility   =    # of fertile eggs

                          # of total eggs set

 

Percent Hatchability is the percentage of fertile eggs which actually hatched out as live young.

% Hatchability =    # of eggs which hatch out

                               # of fertile eggs

 

http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/2902/2902-1090/2902-1090_pdf.pdf

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v80), quality = 80

 

Choosing an incubator

 

Many different styles of incubators are available, most common are Styrofoam types found at most feed stores. These incubators hold more eggs and are usually less expensive, but they require more involvement in the hatching process. Egg turners are usually optional that can be added for convenience. There are also some great “hands free” incubators, commercial incubators as well as Simple Inexpensive Homemade Incubators. We make “Coolerbators” they work 100% better than our store bought incubator because it has less than .5 degree variance and we have very successful hatches in it!

  Coolerbator  & DIY Instructions… CLICK HERE

  CABINET COOLER INCUBATOR & DIY Instructions CLICK HERE

   

DIY Cabinet COOLER INCUBATOR   1000

 

HELP How do I decide on an incubator?

Still air or forced air incubator? There are 2 main types of incubator. Still air and forced air. The difference is simply a fan. In forced air incubators, a fan circulates the air around the incubator which keeps the temperature constant in all parts of the incubator. The temperature can be measured anywhere within the airflow. In a still air incubator, there is no fan, the heat stratifies (forms layers) inside the incubator so the temperature is different between the top and bottom of the incubator. 

IMPORTANCE OF FANS and HOW TO ADD ONE! post #58100 

More Info On INCUBATORS, How to Choose, PARTS, ASSESORIES (Click to show)

Poultry Keeper Choosing the Right Incubator

http://poultrykeeper.com/incubating-and-hatching-eggs/choosing-the-right-incubator-for-your-hatching-eggs

Incubator warehouse.com Egg Incubator Buyers Guide

http://incubatorwarehouse.com/egg-incubator-buyers-guide

INCUBATORS

CHOOSING an INCUBATOR & SUGGESTIONS  post #1901

Incubator Accessories & PARTS click HERE or item below...

 

Adding Fans and Thermostats (Click to show)

Adding Fans and Thermostats

IMPORTANCE OF FANS and HOW TO ADD ONE! post #58100

6" 240 cfm DUCT FAN for cabinets all sizes click HERE

THERMOSTATS/TEMP CONTROLLERS: *Also see Incubator Accessories and Parts Above

  • Temperature Controller Thermostat Control Switch Unit 1 Relay Output with Sensor CLICK HERE

  • STC-1000 Digital Temp.Controller w/Sensor AC110V Install/Wiring Diagrams post #63789

  • How a wafer Thermostat Works Click HERE & HERE

  • Hot water heater Thermostats, Must get drilled Watch Video HERE & See  CoolerBATOR

HEATING ELEMENTS: *Also see Incubator Accessories and Parts Above

Homemade DIY Incubators, DIY Turners & Egg Trays & Hatching Baskets Mics (Click to show)

Homemade DIY Incubators

BYC MEMBERS Homemade Incubators CLICK HERE

CABINET COOLER INCUBATOR

CoolerBATOR

RUSH LANE~ MUST SEE B4 DIY  https://www.youtube.com/user/RushLanePoultry

Links to 'bator building! post #4423

WINE COOLER DIY:

CABINET DIY:

Cooler DIY Incubators & Box Bators:

HOW TO SEAL a BATOR Click HERE

HOW Many VENT HOLES do I NEED? post #24735

DIY WAFER thermostat with ASSEMBLY Click HERE

Aquarium Cheap light to see in Bators post #68412

DIY Turners & Egg Trays & Hatching Baskets Mics

How to put a turner back together post #63577

Bennys Awesome MANUAL horizontal EGG TURNER post #64262

Easy manual egg carton pvs turners click HERE   and another in HERE

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/9302/semi-automatic-egg-turner

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/bens-hens-diy-incubator

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/9302/semi-automatic-egg-turner/10#post_67770

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/968827/my-diy-automatic-egg-turner

Homemade automatic or manual HORIZONTAL egg turner CLICK HERE

Horizontal DIY Turner post #64675

DIY Quail Turner post #64682

Sallys manual cabinet turner with trays post #32186

Manual PVC turner for incubator  HERE

Hatching baskets Egg Trays and sizes/depths post #64634

DIY Egg Tray Hatching Baskets out of Hardware Cloth post #64620

CHEAP EGG TRAYS click here  and HERE

Egg trays, also look at Cutler Supply and Hawkhead Hatchery Equipment

GFQ Turner Supplemental Maintenance Manual with detailed images  PDF CLICK HERE

Rotisserie motor considered using with a timer chkncanoe  CLICK HERE

Rotisserie Motor - NEW MODEL 6RPM Click HERE

Replacement Egg Turner Motor for Little Giant, HovaBator, and Farm Innovators Click HERE

LOCATION OF INCUBATOR

Locate your incubator in a room in which temperature is 70 degrees, free from drafts,

away from windows and direct sunlight.

Did you know that the Incubating practice originated more than 2,500 years ago in Egypt and China. Methods of incubation were kept secret for a long time. In Europe attempts to use incubation are known from the 14th century. Owing to the imperfection of incubation apparatus (casks submerged in rotted manure, bakers’ ovens, and so on) and inadequate study of the conditions of incubation, it did not become common. Only since the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with the invention of better incubators, has incubation become widely used in Europe and the USA; since the middle of the 20th century it has been the principal method of propagating poultry.

 

 

 

 

 

Collection, WASHING & Storage of Eggs

Collection, Washing, Cuticle Removal, Sanding & Storage of Eggs (Click to show)

Collection, Washing & Storage of Eggs

 

Choose eggs that are of good size, not abnormally big or small. Do NOT set dirty, cracked, or porous eggs. 

Clinical studies at the University of Arkansas have shown that if your going to set a dirty egg, set the dirty egg, DO NOT SAND, WASH OR WIPE dirty eggs as hatchability decreases with these practices!

Cuticula is the thin membrane that covers the whole eggshell that is made from the sticky fluid when laid which covers it and quickly dissolves due to carbondioxyde activity. 

This membrane can be penetrated by gasses but functions as a kind defensive mechanism to prevent the entry of bacteria.

 

 The washing and rubbing action also serves to force disease organisms through the pores of the shell. Place the eggs upright in an egg carton with the FAT, air cell end of the egg UP! Allow eggs to sit in a moderately cool, somewhat humid place for storage. Basements are great. Moderately cool means 55-65 degrees. Rotate your eggs a 3 times a day to keep the embryo from sticking. An easy way to turn all of the eggs at once is to place a thick book under one end of the carton, and later remove the book and put it under the other end of the carton, 3 times a day. Before adding eggs to the incubator always WARM eggs UP slowly to room temperature. IF THE EGGS ARE COLD Condensation can cause bacterial growth on the eggs! You can collect eggs up until 10 days or so, but after the 7th day lower hatch rates may result. 

Stored eggs take longer to hatch (about one hour per day of storage).

 

It is important to ALWAYS wash your hands before handling your hatching eggs!

 

Omphalitis, yolk sack infection is caused by a bacterium that enters through the porous egg shell and easily kills embryo's and newly hatched chicks. Unfortunately, incubation conditions are ideal for breeding bacteria as well as incubating eggs. For more information on storing eggs refer to  Recommendations for hatching egg handling and storage

 

 

 

 

 

If you MUST store longer please see this info HERE:

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/704328/diary-notes-air-cell-detatched-shipped-eggs/26100#post_13329240 ( pasted below from diary thread)

CONCLUSIONS: 

When eggs were stored in the small-end-up position for 2 to 4 weeks, it was, not beneficial to turn them daily as had been previously demonstrated to be advantageous for eggs stored small-end-down.

 

PLASTIC BAG EGG STORAGE!!!   http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=618820

Temporary heating before incubation and enclosing eggs in plastic bags during storage improves hatchability, especially when storage is prolonged. A high humidity during storage also improves hatchability, probably due to a reduction in water loss. The changes in albumen pH during storage are discussed in so far as they provide a possible explanation for relationships between environmental conditions during storage and hatching results.

 

Effects of inverting the position of layers eggs during storage on hatchery performance parameters

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2012000400003

CONCLUSIONS

Storing eggs with the small end up is an alternative method to improve hatchability and to reduce egg weight and hatchling weight losses in eggs derived from young and old breeders stored up to 14 days.

 

http://pubs.aic.ca/doi/pdf/10.4141/cjas69-005  

ABSTRACT~ When eggs were held in storage, the small-end-up pack position without turning, their hatchability was equal to or better than that of eggs packed small-end-down. When eggs were stored in the small-end-up position for 2 to 4 weeks, it was, not beneficial to turn them daily as had been previously demonstrated to be advantageous for eggs stored small-end-down. Thus, the inconvenience and expense of daily turning can be avoided without loss.Evidence is also provided that hatchability was equally good whether eggs were stored on their sides and turned through 180° daily or stored small-end-up without positional change.

 

 

TIPS:

Use your turners during storage!

 

 

 

 

SANITIZING/WASHING EGGS

Most commercial hatcheries sanitize their eggs. There are differences of opinions about how to sanitize eggs, if you feel they need to be. Some experts advocate washing and even lightly scrubbing eggs with soft brushes. Others feel that the most that should be done is dipping for a few seconds. Because of the varying opinions on sanitizing eggs, the following is an opinion of Brower and not necessarily a hard and fast recommendation. Accomplish sanitizing by dipping eggs in solution containing disinfectant that is just strong enough to kill bacteria and viruses. However, the disinfectant should not be so strong as to damage the embryos.

 

Mix the sanitizing solution according to the manufacturers' instruction. A recommended cleaning solution is Tex-Trol. TexTrol may be available at a local retail outlet. For the name of a retailer search for it online. If using Tex-Trol, mix one half ounce of concentrated disinfectant to one gallon of warm water. You can also use 1 ounce of Clorox to 2 gallons of water. The water should be 100 to 110 degrees Fahrenheit (37° to 44°C). If the egg is warmer than the solution, contamination can be pulled through the pores of the egg before the agent has a chance to neutralize any pathogens.. Submerge the eggs for one to three minutes with dirtier eggs left in solution longer than ones that essentially look clean. Allow the eggs to air dry at room temperature and store as described above--or set in your incubator. A soft paper tissue can be used to dry the eggs but don’t rub the egg with a tissue or any material. Eggs have a natural protective cuticle that helps retard contamination. Rubbing removes the cuticle and can actually drive pathogens through the shell.

 

Source:

http://browerequip.com/documents/Instruction%20Sheets/egg%20to%20chick%20guide.pdf

eggtochickguide.pdf 186k .pdf file

 

 

(1 Tablespoon = 3 Teaspoons per gal )

 

Sanitizing solution of chlorine (bleach) 6% hypochlorite and water at a concentration of 100 ppm (parts per million) =  To make a100 ppm chlorine solution, combine 2 ml. (1/2 tsp.) of bleach with one quart of water.

Image result for clorox label1zdprty.jpg

 

Quote:

Abstract

The efficacy of chlorine dioxide ( ClO2) as an alternative sanitizing agent for hatching eggs was investigated because of the health concerns about formaldehyde fumigation. Hatchability of chicken eggs was reduced when the eggs were dipped in the ClO2 solutions for more than 5 minutes or in concentrations greater than 100 ppm Cl. However, treating hatching eggs with a ClO2 foam or fumigating with formaldehyde had no adverse effect on hatchability compared with untreated control eggs. Sanitizing soiled duck eggs with ClO2 foam improved hatchability by more than 10% and hatch by more than 6% compared with untreated eggs (P < 0.05). A novel method for assessing bactericidal potential of egg-sanitizing agents was developed. Using this technique, both chlorine dioxide foam and formaldehyde fumigation reduced the number of egg-contaminant bacteria inoculated on sterile chicken eggs compared with the number of bacteria on untreated eggs (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that sanitizing hatching eggs with ClO2 foam may be a viable alternative to fumigating with formaldehye. 

 

Hatching Eggs Sanitized with Chlorine Dioxide Foam: Egg Hatchability and Bactericidal Properties
P. H. Patterson, S. C. Ricke, M. L. Sunde and D. M. Schaefer
Avian Diseases
Vol. 34, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1990), pp. 1-6
DOI: 10.2307/1591327
Page Count: 6

 

Quote:

 

 

Quote:

EGG DIPPING SOLUTION

This procedure has been used to destroy pathogenic organisms such as Mycoplasma spp. that can be carried on the hatching eggs. The procedure must be conducted exactly as described, and is not intended as a routine hatching egg treatment. The procedure is only used in unusual situations.

The antibiotic solution contains 500 ppm gentamycin sulfate
(1 gram per 2 liters of water) or 1 gram tylosin per liter of water.

The hatching eggs must be carefully washed, rinsed, and sanitized prior to treatment. The eggs are then prewarmed to 100 degrees F. for 3-6 hours and immediately submerged into the antibiotic solution that has been previously cooled to 60 degrees F. The eggs are left in the antibiotic solution for 15 minutes before being placed into the incubator.

After each day's use, the solution must be sterilized by heating to 160 degrees and maintained for 10 minutes. Any water lost during sterilization must be replaced. Refrigerate the solution in a clean covered container between uses to prevent bacterial contamination. Do not use or store solutions for more than three days after dilution.

 

FUMIGATION OF HATCHING EGGS AND EQUIPMENT

Preincubation of hatching eggs and equipment

Mix .6 gram potassium permanganate (KMnO4) with 1.2 ml formalin for each cubic foot of space.
-or-
2 oz KMnO4 and 4 fl oz formalin per 100 ft3 space.

Mix both ingredients in an earthenware or heat resistant container having at least ten times the capacity of the ingredients being added. Circulate the gas for 20 minutes at 70 degrees F. or higher. Equipment without eggs can be allowed to fumigate overnight before exhausting the formaldehyde gas.

Fumigating eggs in incubator

Mix .4 gram KMnO4 and .8 ml formalin per ft3
-or-
1.5 oz KMnO4 and 3 fl oz formalin per 100 ft3

Follow the same guidelines as discussed for equipment fumigation. Do not fumigate chicken eggs between the 24th and 96th hours of incubation. Other species of birds may need the incubation intervals adjusted to compensate for total incubation time in relationship to the chicken's incubation period. It is best to incubate after the incubator reaches normal operating temperature and humidity.

 http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/solutions.html

 

The Cuticle removal

in hatching eggs as a means to reduce weight loss: Has actually been found to increase embryo weight during incubation and has direct relationship between rate of egg water loss, embryonic metabolism, and growth during incubation. But that warning of contamination is there if you dont follow cleaning procedures correctly. Chlorine treated eggs were not altered either. So with all that it is found that cuticle removal can be an effective method for increasing growth and egg weight loss.

 

 

The importance of preventing ‘sweating’ eggs Click HERE

'Sweating' of eggs refers to the phenomenon of condensed water sitting on the egg shell surface. This occurs when cold eggs are suddenly exposed to a higher environmental temperature. The warm air with a certain moisture content cools down rapidly directly around the colder eggs. Since cold air contains less water than warm air, relative humidity will increase until the air is saturated. And at that moment, condensation will take place on the cool egg surface.

 

Prior to EGG placement in the incubator,

place the eggs at a room temperature for several hours.

 

 

 

 

Digital Egg Scale - Accurate Humidity Measurement and Egg Sizing HERE

ZONES OF COLD INJURY fro EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT post #36213

EGG Quality https://www.alltech.com/sites/default/files/alltech-egg-shell-quality-poster.pdf

PULLET EGGS??? post #41984 UNDER CONSTRUCTION

DOUBLE YOLKERS NOT suggested but they can hatch with assistance post #46649

 

Is it Fertile or Infertile?

 

To check the fertility, simply break an egg in a bowl.

Find the white spot on the yolk. If you do not, use a spoon to gently flip the yolk over until you find it.

Bulls eye look is fertile.

  BOTH of these below ARE FERTILE!!

FERTILITY, Is it Fertile? IMAGES & Flock Management (Click to show)

Fertility:

  • IS IT FERTILE? Many images see post #43324

  • Managing Fertility click HERE

  • Several Reasons Why Your Hens May Stop Laying Eggs click HERE

  • Winter Blues w/the Roos, why are my eggs infertile ugh starting post #1986

  • Reproductive Physiology of the Hen  post #40628

  • HOW long does a ROO SPERM REMAIN IN HEN  post #40628

 

Example 57 out of 126 were declared fertile.

Hatch Rates...

Example 50 of the 57 fertile eggs hatched the % hatch=
 

Is it Fertile or Infertile?

Many images see post #43324

To check the fertility, simply break an egg in a bowl. Find the white spot on the yolk. If you do not, use a spoon to gently flip the yolk over until you find it. Bulls eye look is fertile.

 

 

A true fertile egg contains a well de­­veloped germinal disc (blastoderm), which indicates that the oöcyte, or zygote, was fertilized and an embryo developed during egg formation.

 

WHAT IS EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT SEE SLIDE SHOW!!

http://slideplayer.com/slide/3571265/  INTERNAL DEV> PAGE 23

http://player.slideplayer.com/12/3571265/#

 

 

 

Clears at CANDLE are not always infertile!

READ: http://www.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/BB_Resources_Tools/Hatchery_How_Tos/04HowTo4-IdentifyInfertileEggsandEarlyDeads.pdf

PURCHASING EGGS Tons of info! (Click to show)

PURCHASING EGGS

HOW TO REQUEST AND SHIP EGGS Sally Sunshine Way  

HOWTOREQUESTANDSHIPEGGSSallySunshineWay.docx 940k .docx file

Results Shipped SS Way post #63575 cree post #6321

REQUEST HOW YOU WANT YOUR eggs SHIPPED PEOPLE!!!!  post #4964

Kristins horribly shipped eggs and hatch post #57321

DO you have to be NPIP certified to ship hatching eggs? States/Agencies Info see post #33884

Great IDEAS to find eggs CHEAP!  post #775

Julian date on trader Joe eggs understanding it! http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/partners/fepp/julian-calendar.pdf  post #5098

BYC Links for EGGS........

LOCAL BYC THREADS in the Where am I? Where are you Section! click HERE

HATCHING EGGS FOR SALE/TRADE BYC http://www.backyardchickens.com/f/36/chicken-hatching-eggs

BIO SECURITY!  

Risks associated with hatching eggs of chickens

http://www.slideshare.net/mahmoudghonim/handbook-of-poultry-diseases-2

http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/files/biosec/consult/draft-ra-hatching-eu-ca-usa-aus.pdf

Record Keeping

Accurate and detailed records are very important in incubation.

In addition to records of individual eggs it is important to keep records of the temperature and the humidity, so that trends in temperature and humidity may be detected early and can be corrected for next hatch. 

 

INCUBATION RECORDS, SOFTWARE/APPS (Click to show)


Egg Details 19k .xls file

 

Incubating Chart 22k .xls file

 

unprotectedfieldscanbeeditedwithCAUTIONforfunctions.xls 306k .xls file


Here is a spreadsheet for the intense OCD hatcher there is a sample page and a workbook page

 


ozexpatbychatchtemplate.xlsx 20k .xlsx file

INCUBATION RECORDS, SOFTWARE/APPS

Egg Details 19k .xls file   

Incubating Chart 22k .xls file

unprotectedfieldscanbeeditedwithCAUTIONforfunctions.xls 306k .xls file

Hatch / Egg Turning Chart  click HERE:  Hatch Chart Schedule

Setting Chicken Eggs by the Moon's Sign farmers Almanac see HERE 

Hatchabatch AP Keeping track of your hatch! see here

Printable Month CalendarThis app can be used to generate a planning calendar for a selected month and year. Click HERE

 

 

SPREADSHEETS, APPS & DOWNLOADS (Click to show)

 

 

 

Incubation Chart

Here is a free app...http://homesteadapps.com/app/free/hatchchart/hatchturnscheentry.php

The following table lists incubation requirements for various species of fowl.

 

Species

Incub. Period (days)

Temp (F.)¹

Do not turn
after

Chicken

21

100

18th day

Turkey

28

99

25th day

Duck

28

100

25th day

Muscovy Duck

35-37

100

31st day

Goose

28-34

99

25th day

Guinea Fowl

26-28

100

25th day

Pheasant

23-28

100

21st day

Peafowl

28-30

99

25th day

Bobwhite Quail

23-24

100

20th day

Coturnix Quail

17

100

15th day

Chukar

23-24

100

20th day

Grouse

25

100

22nd day

Pigeon

17

100

15th day

 

¹ Measured at degrees F. in a forced-air incubator. For still-air incubators, add 2-3 degrees F.
² Measured as degrees F. using a wet-bulb thermometer. Use chart to convert to relative humidity.

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/732651/first-time-incubating (Quail)

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/incubating-and-hatching-muscovy-eggs (Muscovy)

http://www.porterturkeys.com/egghatchingtips.htm (Turkey)

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/turkey-incubation-and-hatching-guide (yinepu's Turkey)

HATCHING EMU  click HERE

 

 

 

 

Areas of MOST IMPORTANCE in Hatching EGGS

Ventilation (Oxygen), Temperature, Humidity, Egg Turning/Positioning

 

 

 

 

 

 

VENTILATION (OXYGEN)

Ventilation is VERY important during the incubation process.

VENTILATION (OXYGEN) Hatching at High Altitudes (Click to show)

While the embryo is developing, oxygen enters the egg through the shell and carbon dioxide escapes. Oxygen requirements will increases during development and during hatching. Unobstructed ventilation holes, both above and below the eggs, are essential for proper air exchange. REMOVE RED VENT PLUGS, TOO MANY PEOPLE FORGET TO REMOVE THEM AT DAY 10!  NOTE: When Lockdown occurs, vent openings are frequently restricted in an attempt to boost incubator humidity. Instead of helping the chick hatch, the chick is suffocated from lack of oxygen. Never decrease ventilation openings at hatching in an attempt to increase humidity. Increase humidity by other methods. If any vent adjustments are made, they should be opened more. Try adding a dampened sponge or towel to help boost humidity during lockdown.

VENTILATION (OXYGEN)

Hatching at High Altitudes post #37908
O2 deprivation to day 10 of incubation followed by regular oxygen concentrations leads to stronger chicks post #33815

NEVER USE VENT holes as a means to Control HUMIDITY especially during HATCH DAYS!

 

 Adjusting ventilation http://www.pasreform.com/academy/frequently-asked-questions/incubation/139-adjusting-ventilation.html

 

Start to ventilate at a low level after 3-4 days of incubation to avoid relative humidity being higher than set point for too long.
 

Reducing ventilation at the start of incubation generally avoids the inlet of cold air. Because moisture is trapped in the closed incubator, the humidifier cold spot is also absent. Consequently closing the valves during the first days improves temperature homogeneity and heat transfer to the eggs, producing a good, uniform environment for continuing embryonic development – and an ideal start for achieving a narrow hatch window.

However at the same time, hatchery managers are aware that total weight loss may be challenged if ventilation is closed for too many days, with the result that relative humidity levels become too high. This is especially true in climates typified by high humidity.

 

Since eggshell is porous, the release of (water) vapour from the egg starts immediately after laying, continuing throughout egg handling, storage and the incubation of the eggs. Evaporation from the eggs - and thus weight loss - is mainly a physical process, driven by differences between internal and external vapour pressures. Internal vapour pressure is mainly represented by the saturation vapour pressure in the air cell, which increases as temperature increases - thereby facilitating increased evaporation (weight loss) at a certain relative humidity. In environments with high humidity, weight loss is limited. So for example if relative humidity in the setter reaches 75% , the daily weight loss of the eggs is only half of the weight lost from eggs placed in a setter with 50% relative humidity.

We can conclude, that closing ventilation for the first three to four days of incubation is beneficial, supporting uniform embryonic development for each egg in the incubator to facilitate a narrow hatch window. Subsequently, ventilation should be opened gradually to support optimum daily weight loss, by the continuous removal of moisture from the eggs.

 

 

 

 

 

TEMPERATURE

Never trust the thermometer that comes with the incubator, always check it.

The thermometer that came with my incubator was off by 5 degrees.

That could mean life or death for your babies.

ALWAYS run your bator a few days first for temp swings

Uneven temps in bators rotate eggs at candles post #50418

 

Did you know "The yolk is orange and on its surface is a visible germinal disc; radiating from this area is the more watery white

yolk, which is less dense. During turning, the yolk’s structure makes the part containing the germinal disc stay most dorsal (closest to the incubating bird) for heating"

 

With a Forced Air Incubator (fan model) you can get the best hatch rate by keeping the temperature at 99.5º F. throughout the entire incubation period NEVER LET IT GO BELOW 99.5!!! Watch for evening temp flux!  

 

HOWEVER, when using a Still Air incubator (no fan) at 102º F. The reason for different temperatures is that with a fan model the circulating air warms all around the egg while still air temperatures are warmer at the top of the egg than at the bottom.

COMPLETE INFO ON INCUBATION TEMPERATURES (Click to show)

INCUBATION TEMPERATURES

READ TEMPS SECTION HERE: post #9068  Hatching Eggs 101

Incubators with fans and without fans need to run at DIFFERENT TEMPS! post #9068

ADD a LEGO to your dial of cheap styro bator to make minor adjustments! GENIUS post #38133

What is the maximum and minimum range of temp I can go before killing the chicks? post #12473

ZONES OF COLD INJURY fro EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT post #36213

HAVE A PLAN IN CASE YOU LOOSE ELECTRIC ITS THE SEASON! see post #522

What to do when you find a HIGH TEMPS in Bator post #7061

10/13 day old embryos begin to produce excess heat in the incubator post #27240

 

WHERE TO SET YOUR THERMOMETER

The temperature is measured at the level where the embryos develop (at the top of the HORIZONTAL egg).

NOTE:If the eggs are in vertical position, elevate the thermometer just below the top of the egg. The temperature is measured at the level where the embryos develop (at the top of the egg). Never allow the thermometer to touch the eggs or incubator because incorrect readings can result.

 

A high temperature tends to produce early hatches. A consistently cooler temperature tends to increase incubation times and produce weakened chicks. In both cases the total chicks hatched will be reduced.  Prepare your incubator and run it for several days before adding eggs, to be positive you are maintaining correct incubation temperature. 

 

NOTE: It is common that when adding eggs the temperature will drop but should come back up to correct temperature within an hour or two. Don’t rest the thermometer's bulb touching the eggs or the incubator. Incorrect readings will result. 

 

NOTE: Did you know that 10/13 day old embryos begin to produce excess heat in the incubator? Most large commercial incubators will spend more time cooling than heating!

 

   Probe thermometer & water weasel (Water Wiggler, Water Snake) found on Amazon or Ebay make for EXCELLENT internal temp guides! The perfect internal temperature of an embryo is 99.5 degrees. If you can't find a water wiggler you can make your own with ziplock filled with water folded in half and insert the probe in the center middle.

 

 

THERMOMETER Suggestions, HYGROMETERS & CALIBRATION (Click to show)

THERMOMETERS, HYGROMETERS & CALIBRATION

Celsius to Fahrenheit (ºC to ºF) conversion calculator click HERE

Thermo/hygro suggestions post #13998

Brinsea Incubator Thermometers click HERE

Strombergs Thermometers click HERE   Hygrometers click HERE  Digital Thermo/Hygros click Here

Hova-Bator GQF Incubator Thermometer / Hygrometer (Wet Bulb) 3018    post #32892

HEAT SINKS/ Stones/Pebbles ADD THEM TO STYRO! post #43903

Calibration is a MUST: HOW TO CALIBRATE post #9068

 

Researchers have found that lowering temperatures will prolong incubation, HOWEVER it is favorable to do so at the end of incubation.  

Day 19 & 20 Temp Min 98.0 Max 98.5

Day 21 Temp Min 97 Max 98.0

for more information please refer here: 
PAGE 42

http://www.hubbardbreeders.com/media/incubation_guide_english__030374800_0945_07012015.pdf

 

 

 

*                 *

 

HAVE A PLAN IN CASE YOU LOOSE ELECTRIC ITS THE SEASON! see post #522

 

 

 

HUMIDITY

The Air Bubble in the Egg

 
DRY HATCH incubation DOES NOT MEAN RUN DRY!  It is not only the final size of the air cell that matters, but also the time it takes to form. In the first ten days of incubation, the embryo is small and floats in the amniotic fluid. Weight loss during this phase is mainly the effect of water evaporating from albumen and internal liquids. After this stage, changes occur quickly: the growing embryo gradually fills the egg, excepting the air cell. Low RH set points at days 14-18 of incubation increase evaporation from the allantois – and once the allantois is emptied of fluid, moisture will be drawn from the embryo, causing its dehydration. 

The average chicken egg has thousands of pores running through the shell allowing the embryo to exchange oxygen, carbon dioxide. and water. Soon after an egg is laid, a small air bubble or “air cell” forms in the large end of the egg from this water loss.  Humidity levels in the incubator determine moisture evaporation during the 21 days of incubation and hatching. The air cell is crucial for the chick to break out of the egg shell at the end of the incubation period. The chick can drown if the air cell is too small or the chick may be retarded in growth if the air cell is too large. This is why maintaining the proper humidity is crucial. Slightly lower humidity levels are more likely to be less disastrous than slightly higher humidity levels. There are quite a few opinions on Humidity, but it is no set number.

Humidity is NOT A SET NUMBER, you need it YES!

However, you use it as a tool to "adjust" egg weight loss during incubation. We candle on days 7,10,14,18 To WATCH WEIGHT LOSS IN EVERY EGG!  An EGG MUST lose approximately 13-14% of its weight during the incubation process. THIS IS YOUR GOAL!! You can monitor this by marking Air cells and also by weighing. Please refer to CANDLING section of this Article for more Air Cell info.

 

 

 

Size of air cell on day 7, 14, and 18 of incubation

 

 

WHY to MEASURE WEIGHT LOSS IN EGGS, 

MEASURING PROCEDURES (HOW TO),  HOW TO CALCULATE, and HOW to interpret RESULTS 

 http://www.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/BB_Resources_Tools/AA_How_Tos/AAHowto1WaterLossEN13.pdf

 

I choose the easier method, keeping a close eye on air cell growth during incubation. You begin by ONLY adding a small amount of water and keep Humidity between 20%-30% and adjusting as you weigh or candle depending on moisture loss. IN SOME AREAS OF THE COUNTRY YOU MAY NOT NEED TO ADD ANY WATER! USE IT AS A TOOL FOR THE CORRECT WEIGHT LOSS IN THE EGG! So if your air cells look too large at each candle period you must add some humidity, too small air cell lower it, and if your weighing you adjust as needed. UNTIL DAY 18 LOCKDOWN,

then stop turning and raise humidity to 65-70%

 

UNDERSTANDING HUMIDITY 

 

Views of Day 18 Candle.....

 

 

How Does a Hygrometer Work?

http://weather.about.com/od/weatherinstruments/a/hygrometers.htm

 

Shown here is a WET Bulb Hygrometer and wick

Wet bulb is exactly what it states. It is the temperature relative of the humidity in degrees. 

A  Hygrometer Wick is placed over the stem of the thermometer and the other end of the sleeve is placed in a jar or pan in the incubator. 

images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRXgqr1_Zbz0VpJssPS_MKSOQ38MasD1NotuW986O34U9Xrd6aMimages?q=tbn:ANd9GcQs71Ku7sdBUCTHFGuZV1zVlSC4yUxm4HB-pnBr45Yil7TQblZwdA

 

 

HOW TO CALIBRATE HYGRO with SALT TEST

http://www.sciencecompany.com/Understanding-Relative-Humidity-and-the-Hygrometer-W136.aspx

 

http://www.hermitcrabassociation.com/pages/calibrate.html

http://exoticpets.about.com/od/herpresources/ss/hygrometer_3.htm

 

 

    

NOTES: It’s a good idea to keep the incubator plugged into a surge protector. Use distilled water in your incubator to help prevent bacteria growth. Omphalitis, Mushy Chick Disease and Yolk Sack Infection may be caused by a bacterium that enters through the porous egg shell. Unfortunately, incubation conditions are ideal for breeding bacteria as well as incubating eggs. Brinsea sells a disinfectant, formulated to be used for cleaning eggs, incubators, safe and effective against yeasts, fungi, viruses and bacteria which can cause fatal damage to the growing embryo. Pennies can be added to water wells. Copper helps to destroy the cell walls of bacteria, thus keeping bacteria out of the incubator. Pennies before 1982 have more copper content and pure copper kills 99.9% of bacteria.

 

A few TIPS & TRICKS!

Below image is a Simple waterer/suctioner out of aquarium tubing placed through side of incubator and into water wells. Use a Kids medicine syringe to add/suck water without opening or disturbing eggs.

 

In the image below are the different sized cups I use the first 18 days of incubation INSTEAD of using the wells in the bottom of the incubator. I had a hard time getting humidity correct, so I started using different size containers and caps for water holding, I could easily remove & replace as necessary. It WORKS WELL and I can keep them clean and sanitized better and not disturb my eggs! I will remove these cups on day 18 so the chicks don’t drown in them

and use the lower wells at lockdown at day 18.

 

 2" funnel & we shoved it into a small piece of 1/4" tubing, a cleat on the inside of the unit (a wide-crown staple or cable staple would work also) to hold the tubing in place.  

This way you can add water to the middle of the bator without missing the water troughs and without opening the unit. see below
(Thanks tlpounds)

 

 

 

REMEMBER~

Surface area of water will increase humidity more so than depth!

If you need a safe boost at lockdown just add a dampened sponge or rag.

A "ShamWoW" is great as a wick and can hang from the sides or across top of incubator.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 100

Setting Eggs & Turning

It is important to ALWAYS wash your hands before handling your hatching eggs!

It is likewise important to SANITIZE your incubator AND equipment before AND after use!

Omphalitis, yolk sack infection is caused by a bacterium that enters through the porous egg shell and easily kills embryo's and newly hatched chicks. Unfortunately, incubation conditions are ideal for breeding bacteria as well as incubating eggs.

 

WHY IS EGG TURNING IMPORTANT EVEN WITH SHIPPED EGGS?

REMINDER to see the Shipped eggs section of the article and to treat every shipped egg differently as its air cell is presented to you!

Failure to turn eggs during incubation CLEARLY

reduces hatchability in every scholarly study and every clinical trial. 

http://www.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/BB_Resources_Tools/Hatchery_How_Tos/08HowTo8EggTurningEN.pdf

Also SEE HERE for DETAILED Scientific explanations of WHY TURNING IS IMPORTANT!

HUBBARDS GUIDES:  http://www.hubbardbreeders.com/managementguides/Incubation%20guide%20(english).pdf

 

WHAT FACTORS ARE IMPORTANT FOR EGG TURNING?

Frequency of Turning, Angle of Turning, Smoothness/Gentleness of Turning

SIGNS OF TURNING INADEQUACY
Increased Deaths
Malpositions
Sticky Chicks due to unabsorbed Albumen
 

The effects of turning during a critical period for turning, from 3 to 7 days of incubation, were also recorded. Generally, failure to turn eggs retarded growth of the area vasculosa. Turning during the critical period stimulated the extent of growth of the area vasculosa by day 7 of incubation and of subsequent embryonic growth by day 14. Incubation at low temperature resulted both in reduced expansion of the area vasculosa and retarded embryonic growth in a pattern similar to that observed for unturned eggs. It is suggested that turning stimulates development of blood vessels in the area vasculosa via localized increases in blood pressure.  

 

We were able to demonstrate that it is critical to turn eggs for at least the first three 
days of incubation and better for the first seven. READ MORE HERE  and HERE

 

Only add room temperature eggs to your incubator to prevent SWEATING. Sweating/Condensation weakens the egg's natural defense ­mechanisms, providing an ideal environment for the growth of bacteria and penetrated through the shell pores and kill the embryo.  Eggs can be laid on their sides or placed in turning tray with pointed end down/big air cell end up. For shipped eggs, please refer to SHIPPED EGGS section of this article.

 

Mark eggs, using a pencil, with an X on one side and an O on the other. Make sure to turn the eggs at least 3 times a day, or odd number of times. Turning by hand they should always be turned an odd amount of times and move them to a different part of the tray to protect them from temperature variation. You basically roll the eggs with your fingers/palm from X to O. It is important to NOT ROLL the eggs in the same direction every time. Improper rolling can cause the chalazae that holds the yolk in place to tear. Turning the egg prevents the embryo from touching and attaching to the membrane inside the egg. The most convenient way to turn eggs is to purchase an egg turner. Take extra precautions when turning eggs during the first week of incubation. The developing embryos have delicate blood vessels that rupture easily when severely jarred or shaken, thus killing the embryo. 

 

 

When adding Eggs the temperature will immediately drop. DO NOT ADJUST THE THERMOSTAT, or risk accidentally cooking them. Wait 2/4 hours and if the temperature is still low, make a small adjustment, as small as you can. (Note: Small adjustments on the manual Styrofoam incubators make BIG changes!)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shipped Eggs = Change Of Plans! post #53845

Shipped eggs have a MUCH lower hatch rate, even with experienced hatchers!

REQUEST HOW YOU WANT YOUR eggs SHIPPED PEOPLE!!!!  

HOW TO REQUEST AND SHIP EGGS Sally Sunshine Way...

HOWTOREQUESTANDSHIPEGGSSallySunshineWay.docx 940k .docx file

COLD? REQUESTING HEAT PACKS discussion post #32219

Heat packs for shipping animals/etc http://www.tsksupply.com/categories/Heat-Packs/

  PURCHASING EGGS (Click to show)

PURCHASING EGGS

HOW TO REQUEST AND SHIP EGGS Sally Sunshine Way  

HOWTOREQUESTANDSHIPEGGSSallySunshineWay.docx 940k .docx file

Results Shipped SS Way post #63575 cree post #6321

REQUEST HOW YOU WANT YOUR eggs SHIPPED PEOPLE!!!!  post #4964

Kristins horribly shipped eggs and hatch post #57321

DO you have to be NPIP certified to ship hatching eggs? States/Agencies Info see post #33884

Great IDEAS to find eggs CHEAP!  post #775

Julian date on trader Joe eggs understanding it! http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/partners/fepp/julian-calendar.pdf  post #5098

BYC Links for EGGS........

LOCAL BYC THREADS in the Where am I? Where are you Section! click HERE

HATCHING EGGS FOR SALE/TRADE BYC http://www.backyardchickens.com/f/36/chicken-hatching-eggs

REMINDER THAT YOU MAY BE ENTITLED TO REIMBURSEMENT

OF DAMAGED SHIPPED EGGS

SEE LINKS FOR INFO!  http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/the-truth-about-insuring-hatching-eggs

http://www.jordan-farm.com/blog/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CANDLING & WEIGHING EGGS

 

Sites to refer to for Candling Images and Videos

 

Progression Though Incubation

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/261876/chicks-are-here-egg-candling-pics-progression-though-incubation

 

Great pics of CANDLING and good and bad eggs.......

http://animalscience.ucdavis.edu/Avian/pfs32.htm

 

Metzer Candling :

http://www.metzerfarms.com/Candling.cfm

 

Development of a Chick:

http://chat.allotment.org.uk/index.php?topic=73884.0

 

Candling Pics:

http://shilala.homestead.com/candling.html

 

Understanding the Air Cell

The average chicken egg has thousands of pores running through the shell allowing the embryo to exchange oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Soon after an egg is laid, a small air bubble or “air cell” forms in the large end of the egg from water loss.  Humidity levels in the incubator determine moisture evaporation during the 21 days of incubation and hatching. The air cell is crucial for the chick to break out of the egg shell at the end of the incubation period. The chick can drown if the air cell is too small or the chick may be retarded in growth if the air cell is too large. This is why maintaining the proper humidity is crucial. Slightly lower humidity levels are more likely to be less disastrous than slightly higher humidity levels.

 

MARKING and OBSERVING the size of the air cell is a way of checking for correct weight loss of the egg and is commonly used. However, this can be inaccurate due to the different, types, shapes, and ages of eggs. The protrusion of the embryo into the air cell also may effect observations. Again, it is the most common method for non-commercial hatchers. With experience you can adjust your humidity as needed by visual inspection of air cells. However, Weighing is the MOST accurate. If the incubation humidity is too low (very dry conditions), the air sac will be larger than normal and the humidity in the incubator should be increased to reduce the rate of water loss. If the air space is smaller than normal then the opposite applies.

Track the air sac with pencil tracings when you candle,

On the 7, 14 & 18th days

http://www.slideshare.net/HenryArts/pas-reform-academy-2012  page 28  

 

 

 

 

 

 

WEIGHING EGGS

Chicken eggs need to lose 13% moisture over 21 days, NOT day 18 lockdown. Weigh all the eggs on the first day, before you put them in the incubator and weigh again days 10, 14 & 18. Several formulas can be used to determine the rate of weight loss or overall per cent weight loss and to correct the humidity if the values are off. For accuracy, a digital scale should be used which can weigh in grams. Don't forget to subtract the weight of the container holding the eggs from the total weight when calculating the average egg weight. If you use a rack to incubate your eggs it is best to weigh the entire rack instead of each egg to get an average. If you are incubating SHIPPED eggs upright in a carton you will also weigh the entire carton so that the eggs are not disturbed.

 

 

 

 

Some Explainations from cochins1088 on weighing Eggs!

Eggs should lose approximately 11% - 12% of their mass at 18th day of incubation. To monitor mass loss, a person must keep track of an egg’s weight. Optimally eggs should be weighed right after they’re laid, but this isn’t always possible.  When eggs are shipped, weigh them as you remove them from the package.  Keep in mind that the eggs will lose some of their mass during storage. According to Aviagen, eggs lose about 0.5% of their masses per week in storage.

 

How to Calculate Mass Loss

 

First subtract the current weight of an egg from the original weight of the egg. This number will give you the weight loss. Then take the weight loss and divide it by the original weight of the egg.  This will give you the fraction of weight that was loss.  Lastly, multiply the fraction of weigh loss by 100.  This will give you the percent of mass loss.   

 

For example:

 

Original weight (50 g) - Current weight (45 g) = Weight lost (5 g)

Weight lost (5 g) divided by Original weight (50 g) = Fraction of weight lost (0.1)

Fraction of weight lost (0.1) multiplied by 100 = Percent of weight lost (10%)

 

 

For those of you who incubate large numbers of eggs, you can weigh the trays to find the average mass of each egg.

 

For example:

 

If a tray weigh of eggs initially weighs 700 grams and the empty tray weighs 200 grams, than the eggs must initially weigh 500 grams. If there are 10 eggs in the tray, then each egg weighs approximately 50 grams.

Let’s say that 2 eggs are removed because they were infertile.

After 18 days, your tray weighs 560 grams. If you subtract the weight of the tray (200 grams), than the eggs must weigh 360 grams. There are 8 eggs in the tray, so each egg weighs approximately 45 grams.

With this example, the eggs lost 10% of their mass by day 18.

 

WHY to MEASURE WEIGHT LOSS IN EGGS, 

MEASURING PROCEDURES (HOW TO),  HOW TO CALCULATE, and HOW to interpret RESULTS 

 http://www.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/BB_Resources_Tools/AA_How_Tos/AAHowto1WaterLossEN13.pdf

 

For formulas used to determine the weight loss please refer to

                    Weight Loss Determinations:

http://www.falconryforum.co.uk/showthread.php?t=29983&langid=3

 

Note: Kitchen scales work great. The WeighMax Pocket Mini CD Digital Scale below works great if you weigh individual eggs. I pasted an egg carton cup firmly to hold the eggs.  Be extremely careful not to tip your scale and crack your eggs!

 

 

 

 

 

CANDLE EGGS

DAY 1

 Always wash hands before handling eggs. 

The shell of an egg is thin and opaque when held near a bright light. The easiest type of egg to candle is the white shelled egg and some of the hardest eggs to candle are dark brown eggs, like the Maran eggs pictured below.

 

You could try two or more flashlights to see into them!

 

 

 

 

Candle days are 1, 7, 14 & 18th day

You will need a Candler, bright light, LED flashlight or build your own Candler. Find Instructions HERE. http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/how-to-make-a-homemade-egg-candler-using-common-household-materials

Turn on your Candler and shut off the lights in the room so it is dark, evenings are best. Hold the flashlight/Candler like the image below and set the egg air cell/fat end down on your hand. This will prevent any light leakage from the flashlight. Your hand protects the egg from the hard surface of the light and helps more of the light to go through the egg.

 

 

 

CAUTION: Be very careful when you handle the egg

so you don't accidentally crack it or DROP it!

 

Slowly & gently rotate the egg until you can see inside the egg. On Day 1 candling you will mark air cells and check for cracked or porous eggs.  Lightly mark the air cell with a pencil. Candle quickly if the light gets hot, you will kill the embryo. On Day 1 candle you will NOT see much inside the egg but you may have a glimpse of yolk moving as you gently rotate lightly colored eggs.

 

Chicken Embryo Development, views from the Inside AND Out. *Graphic Photos**

http://www.the-chicken-chick.com/2012/03/chicken-embryo-development-views-from.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CANDLES AND EGGTOPSY

 

  Porous Egg

 

 

TINY Sappy spots possibly due to Rough Shipment of EGGS

 

 

 

 

 

Day 11 candle funky air cells from shipped eggs.

BLOOD RINGS clearly visible on light polish eggs

 

 

 

Saddle Shaped Air cell, where it dips on two sides

BLOOD RINGS clearly visible on light polish eggs

 

 

Note the pictures below on day 10

The two on the right have “scrambled” contents from shipping

 

 

 

 

 

 

CANDLE EGGS

DAY 7

 

 

 

 

When you Candle on day 7 there should be some light blood vessels surrounding it and you may see the embryo move.  See above and below video. My favorite time to candle! Eggs that are clear should be re-candled at 10 days before tossing. If your not sure and it doesn’t smell leave it!  If your egg is colored or a brown egg, it is harder to see through the shell, you may want to wait a few days and try again. Or find a better candler.  You can see the large round yolk move inside the egg, this is NOT the embryo at day 7! Its just the yolk!

 

It IS ALIVE!!!! Video below day 7 Candle

 candle day 7 incubator detached air cells eggs hatching spreadsheet day 7 14 18 20 21 candle pip pipping sappy leaking bad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CANDLE EGGS

 DAY 14

 

    

 

It will begin to look pretty dark in there! Look for movement.

You should again see some good veining. 

 

 

THIS is a video of a CANDLE at DAY 14!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CANDLE EGGS

DAY 18 & LOCKDOWN!

 

 

 

 

Candle day 18 is to determine growth, weigh, pencil mark air cell size and dispose bad eggs. It will look pretty dark and FULL in there! You may or may not see movement on this candle. Its ok if not, don’t panic! The chick may easily be resting! See how that air cell is beginning to dip more to one side and if you lay the egg down it will roll into the hatching position. I set my eggs with lowest dip in the aircell up. This position for hatching is good so the chick is able to turn into position and I can easily see my pips too! Day 18 laying horizontal for actual hatching helps a chick hatch 1-2 hours earlier.  I lay my eggs down LOWEST DIP of the AIRCELL UP! This is the normal and most likely hatching position and the chick will break through or Internally pip and externally pip in that probable area.  See the image below with the x, x being lowest dip in air cell and probably pip area/s.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  700700I I

 

LOCKDOWN!

Stop turning, Remove Turner and Raise Humidity to 65% - 70%

depending on what your air cells may still need
 

NOTE: It is now known that the different embryos communicate with each other by a series of clicking sounds,

the rate of clicking being the important feature. Ensuring the eggs on the hatching trays are in contact with each other facilitates

the synchronization of hatching where the eggs are incubated in a modern machine. This assists in reducing the time between when the first and last chicks hatch.

 

 

After Day 18 candle you will “LOCK DOWN” your eggs. Lower the temperature see suggest temps below and increase the humidity the last three days. STOP turning and the incubator stays closed, for the next three days while the chicks hatch!  If you’re having a hard time with humidity it is OK to open quickly to boost, add warm water or increase the size of the pan or add a wet sponge. NEVER ADJUST HUMIDITY BY cutting back airflow. VENTILATION is EXTREMELY important at this stage!

 

Researchers have found that lowering temperatures will prolong incubation,

HOWEVER it is favourable to do so at the end of incubation.  

Day 19 & 20 Temp Min 98.0 Max 98.5

Day 21 Temp Min 97 Max 98.0

for more information please refer here: 
PAGE 42

http://www.hubbardbreeders.com/media/incubation_guide_english__030374800_0945_07012015.pdf

 

 

A REALY GOOD READ

on what that chick is doing in that egg at this time!

Development of motor patterns in avian embryos:

hatching behavior  http://www.int-ornith-union.org/files/proceedings/durban/Symposium/S46/S46.1.htm

 

A GOOD IDEA FOR SOME STYROFOAM INCUBATORS

COVER THE BOTTOM WIRE GRATE with A SMALLER TYPE OF SCREENING

CHICKS can get broken legs in these large sized wire grates

EXAMPLES Window SCREEN, or DOLLAR store rubber Shelf mat with the holes

see below:

Note:  foam grip drawer mat on the wire bottom of incubator on day on day 18 lockdown.  A cloth, crinoline, or paper towels could work as well. This ALSO protects the navel, the place where the abdomen closes after surrounding the remains of the yolk, from injury. It also makes cleaning the incubator easier. NO the wire on the incubator bottom should not injure or effect your chicks after they hatch.  Dollar store baskets are great to keep hatching chicks separated by breed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VIDEO : Early day 19 INTERNAL PIP

(shipped initially loose air cell, set after 12 hours and turned upright in the cabinet cooler incubator right from set)

Silky embryo in position for hatch and with internal pip (NOTE: NO EXTERNAL YET!) 

 

 

Note:  foam grip drawer mat on the wire bottom of incubator on day on day 18 lockdown.  A cloth, crinoline, or paper towels could work as well. This ALSO protects the navel, the place where the abdomen closes after surrounding the remains of the yolk, from injury. It also makes cleaning the incubator easier. NO the wire on the incubator bottom should not injure or effect your chicks after they hatch.  Dollar store baskets are great to keep hatching chicks separated by breed.

 

 

 

 

 

PREPARE BROODER:

Prepare everything you need for them once they have hatched.

Now is the time to do final checks on brooder, heat lamp and feed. 

See bottom of article for links on chick care.  

Click on the link below for Brooder Ideas!

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/homemade-chicken-brooder-designs-pictures 

 

 

 

Rocking Egg Video! 

Eggs can rock for several days before hatcing, but how exciting it is!

 

 

 700

 

 

Understanding The Hatching Process

 

Between the 15th and 16th days, the chick orients itself so that its head is near the air cell at the large end of the egg. Not long before the chick is ready to attempt to make its way out of the shell its neck acquires a double bend so that its beak is under its right wing and pointed toward the air cell.

 

21 DAYS is just a baseline for hatching eggs.

Many chicks can take 23 - 25 days!

Some pip internally and fully hatch in hours while others will be 24 hours or more.

 

Egg movement! Eggs can “Rock n Roll” days before they are due to hatch!

 

The initiation of hatch occurs partially from the increased carbon dioxide level in the egg. This process causes the embryo to begin twitching it's muscles allowing the inner shell membrane to be punctured by the egg tooth. The chick then begins breathing the air in the air cell. Using its egg tooth, it pecks at the shell thousands of times and after a few hours the chick pips a small hole through the shell and begins to breathe air directly from the outside. After the chick has made a hole in the shell, it stops pipping for 8+ hours sometimes up to 24 hours and rests. During this time, it is acclimating its lungs.

 

700 700

 

 

 

In regards to opening and closing the bator to remove already hatch chicks; It is important to remember that chicks can go 3 days without food/water. It is better to wait for the remaining chicks to hatch to insure reducing the impact to unhatched pipping eggs.

 

But my new chick is running around in the bator knocking eggs around!

LET THEM GO! DO NOT OPEN THE INCUBATOR! They are fine!

 

 

TIMELINE of a silky HATCHING! 

9AM MONDAY 

EARLY DAY 19, CANDLE SHOWS INTERNAL PIP
 

 

 MONDAY 5 PM noticed external pip

 

 

TUESDAY DAY 20 9AM STILL RESTING,

hole slightly larger but chick is NOT zipping!

 

 

 

2 PM TUES. CHICK IS ALREADY OUT!

missed the last quick zipping! 

Silky on the left, two CCL hatched at the same time!

ITS IMORTANT TO NOTE:

THIS CHICK TOOK WELL OVER 24 hours to hatch! and absolutely normal!

 
 
 

 

Hatching egg shrink wrapped air cells incubator incubation

 

 

 

 

Oh NO!

It PIPPED the WRONG END!

MALPOSITIONS

It is common to lose about 1-2% of the chicks due to deformities and malpositions. Deformities occur during embryo development, while malpositions occur the last week of incubation. Malpositioned embryos are unable to pip the eggshell and escape due to improper positioning within the egg. The chicks can have difficulty positioning for pipping, absorbing the yolk sac, or changing from embryo to chick breathing air. The majority of malpositioned embryos that have died in the shell probably resulted from exhaustion and/or lack of oxygen. One GOOD thing to remember is that SOME malpositions are Lethal and some are not! Occasionally, malpositioned chicks will hatch unassisted but the hatch does need to be monitored closely to ensure that the chick is not becoming stressed, or stuck. Often as a result of the position in the shell they have been unable to absorb all of the yolk. Please refer to Navel SECTION BELOW.

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Common reasons of Malpositions are:

Eggs are set with small end up.

Advancing breeder hen age and shell quality problems.

Egg turning frequency and angle are not adequate.

Inadequate % humidity loss of eggs in the setter.

Inadequate air cell development, improper temperature and humidity regulation, and insufficient ventilation in the incubator or hatcher.

Imbalanced feeds, elevated levels of mycotoxins, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

Lower than recommended temperatures in the last stage of incubation.


Normal hatching position and the six recognised malpositions Images:
http://www.thepoultrysite.com/articles/1608/investigating-hatchery-practice-examining-the-hatch-debris

 

 

ASSISTING MALPOSITIONED CHICKS.....

CLICK here....http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/step-by-step-guide-to-assisted-hatching

 

 

 

 

 

 

When to assist?

Assisting a chick should be your LAST RESORT

PLEASE READ the following ARTICLE

BEFORE you try to assist a chick!

 

Step By Step Guide

to Assisted Hatching:

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/step-by-step-guide-to-assisted-hatching

 

 

 

 

She HATCHED! But what's with her butt?

 

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If there is slight bleeding at the navel use corn starch or a dab of cold water to stop the bleeding. You can also swab the umbilicus area with a 1% solution of Betadine and place the chick back in the bator to dry. If you do see this and the chick is already out of the shell dangling with this, use a clean sterile scissors to cut through them, DO NOT PULL as you can harm the chick’s navel!

But only the cords!

DO NOT CUT IF THERE IS UNABSORBED YOLK SACK!!

 

 

 

Please see HOW TO TREAT & PREVENT yolk sack infections!!

click on in the link below

Mushy Chick Disease aka yolk sack infection & omphalitis

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/mushy-chick-disease-yolk-sack-infection-omphalitis

 

Below is a photo of a "Duck in a Cup" waiting for its yolk sack to finish up!

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3 Essential Chick Care Tips (pasting up and Cord info)

http://ezinearticles.com/?Do-You-Know-These-3-Essential-Chick-Care-Tips?&id=4449831

 

 

 

 

YES this CHICK MADE IT through with proper Care!

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/744592/day-21-ohmy

 

 

And this one MADE IT! Say Hello to "Yolk"

Yolk, a WONDERFUL Story of a Chick that stopped pipping midway and ended up having a yolk sack rupture and a bunch of other issues! It is well worth a read and "Rock" has all the footage to boot!

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/704328/diary-notes-air-cell-detatched-shipped-eggs/3100

 

 

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Links for additional information

 

 

What Went Wrong During Incubation

 

 

Why break out and analyse hatch debris?

http://www.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/BB_Resources_Tools/Hatchery_How_Tos/05HowTo5-BreakOutandAnalyseHatchDebris.pdf

Procedure for breaking out hatch debris
Common MalPositions IMAGES
HOW to Analyze
Possible causes of Hatch Debris Embryo Mortality

 

http://www.slideshare.net/HenryArts/pas-reform-academy-2012

High Humidity ~ cause  read page 36

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Trouble Shooting Failures with Egg Incubation

http://msucares.com/poultry/reproductions/trouble.html

 

 Hatchability Problem Analysis

 http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00008570/00001

 

Troubleshootting Incubation

http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8127.pdf

 

This is also a great pdf with pics: paste link in browser search:

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=early%20emrbyo%20death%20%20incubation&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&ved=0CDsQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thepoultrysite.com%2Fdownloads%2Fdownload%2F171%2F&ei=UllaUMXFHsmrygGnjoHICw&usg=AFQjCNGgYxCBYwBex31MS5w2McdnpH1zbw

 

Eggtopsy: What happened to my egg?

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/363717/eggtopsy-what-happened-to-my-egg-graphic-pictures

 

"Shrink wrap" vs. "Sticky chick"?

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/491421/shrink-wrap-vs-sticky-chick#post_6242987

 

Signs of Deficiency in the Embryohttp://books.google.com/books?id=bbV1FUqRcM0C&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=TABLE+7-2+Signs+of+Deficiency+in+the+Embryo&source=bl&ots=IhnS4FiwQs&sig=sGV396VQdoYVw7dGY7XIRI5JE6s&hl=en&sa=X&ei=4ExhU4zYM9ajyAS1lILABg&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=TABLE%207-2%20Signs%20of%20Deficiency%20in%20the%20Embryo&f=false

 

WHY MEASURE CHICK YIELD?
• Chick yield (the weight of the chick at hatch as a percentage of egg setting 
weight) is a simple method of checking whether hatch timing and incubation parameters are correct. 

http://en.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/BB_Resources_Tools/Hatchery_How_Tos/02HowTo2MeasureChickYield.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

New Chick Care Links and Info

 

 

 

How to Spot Problems of Newly Hatched Chicks

ttp://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-spot-problems-of-newly-hatched-chicks.html

Reasons for chick malformations

 

 

GROW GEL / FEED Newly hatched chick! 

 WHY I always add little soda caps full of grow gel when my first chick is fluffed in the incubator.  

Does it do anything?  I thought they had the yolk!  

 Read PAGE 6 http://www.thepoultrysite.com/focus/contents/ceva/OnlineBulletins/ob_2007/Article-No12-May07.pdf

"The development of the gastrointestinal system is stunted under fasting conditions, and this may be related to the retarded utilization of the yolk (Dibner, 1999)"  

900x900px-LL-dc596936_IMAG5207.jpeg

 

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DIP THE BEAK OF THE CHICK IN THE WATER BEFORE YOU TURN IT LOOSE in the brooder. A taste of water right away helps them to find more water soon. If your chicks are at all stressed, add about 3 tablespoons of brown or table sugar to each quart of water for extra energy. Most baby bird loss is caused because the bird doesn't start to eat or drink. Never let your bird run out of water. http://odysseyranch.com/Chick%20Care%20Tips.html

 

Homemade Electrolyte Recipe for weak/ill chicks
2 C. Water
2 TBL. Brown Sugar, honey or molasses
1/2 tsp Salt
1/2 tsp. Baking Soda

Mix until all dry ingredients dissolve & Keep refrigerated

You could also use electrolyte drinks Gatorade or Pedialyte, or

3 drops of POLYVISOL (liquid childrens A-B-D vitamins)

Slowly drip along inner edge of lower beak.

How To Raise Baby Chicks

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/how-to-raise-baby-chicks-the-first-60-days-of-raising-baby-chickens

 

 Raising your chicks

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/raising-your-baby-chicks

 

Dont forget to have Sav-A-Chick™ Electrolyte and Vitamin Supplement on hand! AND ITS CHEAP at TSC its Balanced electrolytes supplement for newly hatched and adult chickens, ducks, turkeys, and other domestic poultry. Fortified with vitamins A, D3, E, C, K, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9 and B12. Convenient, single-use packets each mix into one gallon of drinking water. Use during hot weather or other stress to support optimal hydration and bird health. JUST IN CASE you have a weak bird! OR You can add sugar to the water in the first couple of days.


Free eBook: The My Pet Chicken Guide to Chicken Care

http://www.mypetchicken.com/backyard-chickens/chicken-care/chapter-4-caring-for-baby-chicks.aspx

 

 

WRY NECK / Torticollis

Wry neck is a condition in which the baby chicks head or hangs it sideways or tilts backwards, causing it to be off balance and fall over. Sometimes chicks can be weak and fall over but if its tilting of head back is causing toppling its typically wry/crooked neck.

 

Torticollis is a symptom from different illnesses. Marek's disease, a possible vitamin deficiency in magnesium, vitamin E, thiamine, avian encephalomyelitis or listeriosis, food poisoning/botulism, heavy metal/lead toxicity, Fungal aspergillosis, ear infections, and head injuries with some vulted skull breeds.

 

http://www.pjbs.org/ijps/fin714.pdf

Vitamin Deficiency-Induced Neurological Diseases of Poultry

http://dlhunicorn.conforums.com/index.cgi?action=display&board=emergencies&num=1160928615&start=0#1160928615 

AWESOME links here!

 

 http://oureggbasket.blogspot.com/2013/04/wry-neck-or-crook-neck-understanding-it.html :

Vitamin E with Selenium, Water Soluble Multi Vitamins plyvisol NO IRON, Probiotics & Electrolytes, Prednisone,Bayer Brand Baby Aspirin

 

http://huckfarm.com/wry-neck/

MASSAGE, Vit B, Vit E, Selenium

 

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/662850/a-happy-ending-to-a-wry-neck-chick-story-with-pics-with-update

help them get out of their twist!

 

 

  

 

 

Some causes of EARLY CHICK MORTALITY ~

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/39604/some-causes-of-early-chick-mortality

http://www.poultry.uga.edu/extension/documents/French-Livability.pdf

 

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/946452/Early-chick-mortality

 

Vitamin Deficiencies in Backyard Chicks and Chickens  

http://networkedblogs.com/Unsff

 

 

 

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Chick in a babyfood container to help "bring legs" together

 

CHICKEN ORTHOPEDICS ~

https://sites.google.com/a/larsencreek.com/chicken-orthopedics/leg-braces

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/72885/boot-for-curled-toes-on-3-month-old-chicken-update-w-pics

http://www.the-chicken-chick.com/2012/02/spraddle-leg-in-baby-chicks-what-is-it.html

http://poultryhelp.com/spraddle.html

Curled Toes

http://www.chickenchatter.org/view_topic.php?id=2586&forum_id=30

 

 

Understanding Splayed Legs and incubation distress that easily leads to splayed legs

This condition has been associated with high humidity during incubation, but the results of our research indicate that higher temperature conditions during the last phase of embryo development may have a bigger impact. Splayed legs are also observed when newly hatched chicks are placed on slippery floors. 

 

http://www.worldpoultry.net/Breeders/Incubation/2011/8/Incubation-distress-easily-leads-to-splayed-legs-WP009251W/

 

 

Culling ~

Small Animal Euthanasia at Home http://www.alysion.org/euthanasia/index.php

How to cull chicks http://www.waldeneffect.org/how_to_cull_chicks/

How to Dispatch a Chicken.http://poultrykeeper.com/general-chickens/how-to-kill-a-chicken

 

 

Medicine Chart for Chickens & other Poultry

https://sites.google.com/a/poultrypedia.com/poultrypedia/medicine-chart

 

Sexing Chicks 

http://www.ca.uky.edu/smallflocks/sex_linked_crosses.html

 http://www.ca.uky.edu/smallflocks/Feather_sexing_practice.html

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/sexing-different-breeds

 

 

 

Learn CPR: Save A Bird’s Life

CPR can save a bird’s life in the correct circumstances, so learn how to perform CPR on your bird with these tips.

http://www.birdchannel.com/bird-diet-and-health/bird-emergency-care/bird-cpr.aspx

 

VACCINATE!

http://mysrf.org/pdf/pdf_poultry/p8.pdf

 

 

SmallScale Poultry Flocks Resources

a PDF Filled with Informative links to EVERYTHING POULTRY!

http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/ahfss/animal_health/pdfs/Small-Scale_Poultry_Flock_Resources.pdf

 

 

 

BYC BEST LINKS!

http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/byc-community-faqs-glossary-notable-archives

http://www.backyardchickens.com/atype/1/Learning_Center

 

FINISHED ~

SANITIZE EQUIPMENT & PAT YOURSELF ON THE BACK!

 

 

 

A few Cool Videos!

 

 

THIS is a video of a CANDLE at DAY 10!

 

 

Day 13 Duck Candle below

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Air Cell detatched

 

 

 

 

 

 

Everyone is MORE than WELCOME to come join the Incubation thread with us!

you can find us here...

 

 INCUBATING w/FRIENDS! come hatch, learn, Chat, Meet new Friends!

http://www.backyardchickens.com/t/1046313/incubating-w-friends-come-hatch-learn-chat-meet-new-friends

 

Just pop in and say hello and what your plans are in the bator!

Experienced Hatchers also needed to help out with the growing demand for help with incubating!

Its not just for shipped eggs! Its awesome, most check daily and are there to help and support!

 

 

 

Disclaimer: Please note this information is offered as friendly advice only and, whilst I have made every effort to ensure it is accurate, I can not be held responsible if it proves not to be useful in your case!

 

Sally Sunshine profile picture

Sally Sunshine

 

 

 

 

 

INCUBATING w/FRIENDS! come hatch, learn, Chat, Meet new Friends!

MY BYC INTERVIEW 

Hatching 101 Guide ~      Guide to ASSISTED Hatching ~

 CABINET COOLERBATOR ~ CoolerBATOR ~

 Mushy Chick Disease  ~ Duckling Care ~  "Nasty CKN Butt"~ Fermented Feed! ~ Processing Support

Pallet COOP~ Saloon COOP~ EASY 5gal Waterer~ PINTEREST Chickens~Gettin the Flock out of hereCHICK LIGHT BOX 

 

 

 

 

 

A little fun compliments of my friend Oz!

 

 

 

 

 


 

175x400px-LM-4a3e464a_350x700px-LL-6a3e6ab6_101_5001_crop.jpeg

 

My new Avy Created by my friend cochins1088 from BYC,

How cool is that!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comments (45)

thanks for all the info hope we end up getting to meet up one day can't wait to see if any of my silkies or frizzles make it
Beautiful chickens and Thanks for all the info Its fun and sad but it does help all of us .
Hey SS, I especially like the section on helping (or not helping) a chick to hatch. Very good reference!
Thanks SUMI for the thumbs up on the Article/Notes! Glad my notes can help others too!
Oh my, you are so smart for putting all of this together! I wish I had done something similar when I did so much research. Thank you for taking the time to do this and sharing! It should help so many on there. :)
Way to go!!! Best reference material that I have seen on hatching and incubating. Great job and thanks for putting it all together and sharing.
YES! Thank you so much! Awesome thread!
thanks for the info!
This is great !!!....thank you so much
Thank you Sally.You have always been helpful and have saved thousand of chicks :)
Keep it up we want more from you.
Thumbs up.... Thankyou for publishing such great information for those who are new to the incubation/hatching.
Great resource. Thank you!
Wow great article and thanks for all your hard work with so much information.
Superb information, you did a LOT of research putting this stuff together....the best I have ever seen. Good JOB!! If anyone has any question imaginable it can be answered in the links, etc above....wow awesome, love internet!
I'm a beginner, and this is chock full of good stuff!! Thank you sooo much!
Amazing thread! On behalf of newbies and experienced hatching peeps, I say Thank You Sally Sunshine. Wonderful Post!!!
Hydrometer Calibration
Place the salt in the bottle cap (or other small container).Dampen the salt with water. Do not put so much in that the salt gets "sloppy". You want a damp pile of salt in the bottle cap.Place both the hygrometer and the bottle cap full of damp salt in the ziploc bag and seal it well. (It is important not to let air on or out while the test is going on.)Keep it like this for over 8 hours.After 8 hours in the damp salt environment, the actual humidity inside the bag will be 75%. Compare it to your hygrometer, your hygrometer should also read 75%. If not, you will then know exactly how far off your hygrometer is. If it's off, note the amount and direction that it actually reads and be sure to add or subtract that amount when reading the hygrometer. If the hygrometer has a control to adjust it (either the needle or the display), you can set the hygrometer to 75% immediately after the test.
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