Are your birds vaccinated for cocci? > read this then


Human Encyclopedia
13 Years
Jan 11, 2007
..even if you do not have cocci vaccinated birds the nutritional info in the article below is very helpful:
"....The IDEA concept seeks to enhance immunity
development and reduce intestinal challenges
by coccidia and bacteria without the use
of drugs. With improved genetic potential
comes increased demand on the intestinal tract
for maximum digestion and absorption. A
comprehensive understanding of intestinal
physiology is imperative.....
I – Impulse (1 to 14 days)
Optimum protein and energy levels as well as
vitamins and trace mineral supplementation
should be critically reviewed and evaluated in
the starter (impulse) feeds. The immune,
digestive and temperature regulatory systems
are still being developed during this critical
stage of the bird’s life. Newly hatched chicks need immediate access to solid feed and water
to stimulate intestinal maturation. This stage
determines the quality and number of enterocytes
that will develop and be maintained for
the rest of the bird’s life. In order to maximize
the full processing genetic potential, it is critical
to guarantee maximum development of
intestinal enterocytes in this very early phase
of grow-out. This critical window of time is also when bones and muscles are formed at
maximum efficiency and when intestinal
microflora are established.
D – Digestibility (15 to 28 days)
Abrasive or less digestible ingredients in the
grower (digestibility) feeds can cause nonspecific
enteritis and should be replaced with high quality, highly digestible ingredients.
Dietary changes should be avoided at 15 to
21 days to prevent intestinal irritation and
subsequent disruption of normal microflora
development. Intestinal irritation can lead to
infections with secondary invaders, especially
bacteria (dysbacteriosis). Full development of
the intestinal immune system and enterocytes
are completed by this phase of grow-out.
Protein levels should be adjusted as needed,
since excess undigested protein encourages
overgrowth of undesirable bacteria and could
contribute to the development of dysbacteriosis.
Dietary fat should be of high quality and
easily digestible as well......
......Recent trials have confirmed that performance
is enhanced when digestibility of the protein
fed is improved during the time that immunity
is developing..... (see article for info specific to broilers)....
....However, another aspect that can impair the
digestion of lipids and protein is the presence
of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (pentosans,
beta-glucans and pectins) in the diet.
The younger the chicks are, the worse the
effects are of these polysaccharides. These substances promote an increase in intestinal viscosity, slowing the diffusion velocity of substrates and enzymes and compromising their
interaction with the enterocytes. These substances
also increase the presence of microorganisms
in the small intestine (Schutte,1997)........So, first week diets should preferably not contain wheat, rye, barley or oats, since these ingredients are high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides.

Immune system development
The development of the immune system starts
during the embryonic stage and continues during
the first week post-hatch. Casteel et al
(1994) mentions that a delay in water and feed
consumption promotes depression of the
immune response.
According to Klasing (1998), chronic deficiency
of micronutrients can be more significant
than the deficiency of energy and proteins.
Friedeman and Sklan (1997) demonstrated
that broilers fed vitamin A-deficient
diets are less resistant to infectious challenges,
and the immunocompetence of young chicks
is maximized when the level of vitamin A is 10
to 20 times higher than the level suggested for
maximum growth.......

....Yi et al (2005) observed that broilers fasted
for 48 hours after hatch had dramatically
decreased weight gain and feed efficiency during
the first 2 weeks after vaccination against
Eimeria maxima. Ad libitum access to feed or
hatchling supplement for 48 hours followed by
feeding ad libitum was beneficial to early growth performance in broiler chicks. On
day 7 post-hatch, it was shown that the fasting
group (48 h) had less developed intestinal
villi and disrupted intestinal integrity compared
to birds fed ad libitum immediatelyafter placement.

.....It is extremely important that
broilers start to eat solid feed immediately after
hatch, stimulating changes in intestinal structures
and secretions.
Noy and Sklan (1997)
found that the yolk sac is used faster by chicks
being fed than by chicks that are fasting. Thus,
leaving chicks without feed in early life prevents
the early stimulation of nutrients in the
digestive system and reduces the use of available
nutrients in the yolk sac, which are essential
for early chick development.

...Moreover, if lipids are not fully absorbed, which seems probable, or if they are oxidized in the feed or in the lumen, they can cause serious damage to 1-week-old chicks.....Peroxides, produced by oxidative rancidity of lipids, compromise digestive tract anatomy and impair the availability of several nutrients such as fat soluble vitamins........
According to Petersen (1971), referred by Krogdahl (1985), animal fat digestibility in chicks significantly increases with age. This
author suggested the equation D = 60.0 + 4.0
A – 0.07 A2 (r=.81), where D represents animal
fat digestibility and A the bird age in weeks. As it can be seen by the equation, animal fat digestibility is very low in the first week of life. Therefore, undigested fat will remain in the intestinal tract and may be oxidized. It may also be available, as an energy source, to microorganisms present in the intestine or, at least, promote a process of steatorrhea......The higher the level of free fatty acids in feed,
the worse the lipid digestibility. Wiseman and
Salvador (1991) showed that free fatty acids
impaired lipid digestibility, and this effect was
more marked when the lipid source was tallow
and palm oil instead of soybean oil....In some species, the excess of feed intake in early life promotes maturation of fat cells and increases their number. However, this evidence is not confirmed in broilers.....

....Minerals and vitamins
Laganá et al (2004) observed that supplementation
with organic Zn and Se (40 and 0.3
ppm respectively and vitamins E and C 100 IU
and 300 ppm, respectively) during the raising
period resulted in the best feed conversion at
14 and at 35 days. No statistical differences
were observed between supplementation only
with minerals or with vitamins and minerals
Based on these observations, it is possible to
determine what chickens need during the first
week of life to get the best performance
response later. The anatomical, physiological
and nutritional aspects are very different during
this short period of time, but can affect
their entire lives
....... "

This is but a small excerpt from this extensive paper and though it is initially geared towards broilers, much of the info is applicable to all poultry as I have ran across the info in other (applicable to non-broiler) studies/articles.

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