Are your birds vaccinated for cocci? > read this then

Discussion in 'Feeding & Watering Your Flock' started by dlhunicorn, Mar 22, 2008.

  1. dlhunicorn

    dlhunicorn Human Encyclopedia

    Jan 11, 2007
    ..even if you do not have cocci vaccinated birds the nutritional info in the article below is very helpful:
    "....The IDEA concept seeks to enhance immunity
    development and reduce intestinal challenges
    by coccidia and bacteria without the use
    of drugs. With improved genetic potential
    comes increased demand on the intestinal tract
    for maximum digestion and absorption. A
    comprehensive understanding of intestinal
    physiology is imperative.....
    I – Impulse (1 to 14 days)
    Optimum protein and energy levels as well as
    vitamins and trace mineral supplementation
    should be critically reviewed and evaluated in
    the starter (impulse) feeds. The immune,
    digestive and temperature regulatory systems
    are still being developed during this critical
    stage of the bird’s life. Newly hatched chicks need immediate access to solid feed and water
    to stimulate intestinal maturation. This stage
    determines the quality and number of enterocytes
    that will develop and be maintained for
    the rest of the bird’s life. In order to maximize
    the full processing genetic potential, it is critical
    to guarantee maximum development of
    intestinal enterocytes in this very early phase
    of grow-out. This critical window of time is also when bones and muscles are formed at
    maximum efficiency and when intestinal
    microflora are established.
    D – Digestibility (15 to 28 days)
    Abrasive or less digestible ingredients in the
    grower (digestibility) feeds can cause nonspecific
    enteritis and should be replaced with high quality, highly digestible ingredients.
    Dietary changes should be avoided at 15 to
    21 days to prevent intestinal irritation and
    subsequent disruption of normal microflora
    development. Intestinal irritation can lead to
    infections with secondary invaders, especially
    bacteria (dysbacteriosis). Full development of
    the intestinal immune system and enterocytes
    are completed by this phase of grow-out.
    Protein levels should be adjusted as needed,
    since excess undigested protein encourages
    overgrowth of undesirable bacteria and could
    contribute to the development of dysbacteriosis.
    Dietary fat should be of high quality and
    easily digestible as well......
    ......Recent trials have confirmed that performance
    is enhanced when digestibility of the protein
    fed is improved during the time that immunity
    is developing..... (see article for info specific to broilers)....
    ....However, another aspect that can impair the
    digestion of lipids and protein is the presence
    of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (pentosans,
    beta-glucans and pectins) in the diet.
    The younger the chicks are, the worse the
    effects are of these polysaccharides. These substances promote an increase in intestinal viscosity, slowing the diffusion velocity of substrates and enzymes and compromising their
    interaction with the enterocytes. These substances
    also increase the presence of microorganisms
    in the small intestine (Schutte,1997)........So, first week diets should preferably not contain wheat, rye, barley or oats, since these ingredients are high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides.

    Immune system development
    The development of the immune system starts
    during the embryonic stage and continues during
    the first week post-hatch. Casteel et al
    (1994) mentions that a delay in water and feed
    consumption promotes depression of the
    immune response.
    According to Klasing (1998), chronic deficiency
    of micronutrients can be more significant
    than the deficiency of energy and proteins.
    Friedeman and Sklan (1997) demonstrated
    that broilers fed vitamin A-deficient
    diets are less resistant to infectious challenges,
    and the immunocompetence of young chicks
    is maximized when the level of vitamin A is 10
    to 20 times higher than the level suggested for
    maximum growth.......

    ....Yi et al (2005) observed that broilers fasted
    for 48 hours after hatch had dramatically
    decreased weight gain and feed efficiency during
    the first 2 weeks after vaccination against
    Eimeria maxima. Ad libitum access to feed or
    hatchling supplement for 48 hours followed by
    feeding ad libitum was beneficial to early growth performance in broiler chicks. On
    day 7 post-hatch, it was shown that the fasting
    group (48 h) had less developed intestinal
    villi and disrupted intestinal integrity compared
    to birds fed ad libitum immediatelyafter placement.

    .....It is extremely important that
    broilers start to eat solid feed immediately after
    hatch, stimulating changes in intestinal structures
    and secretions.
    Noy and Sklan (1997)
    found that the yolk sac is used faster by chicks
    being fed than by chicks that are fasting. Thus,
    leaving chicks without feed in early life prevents
    the early stimulation of nutrients in the
    digestive system and reduces the use of available
    nutrients in the yolk sac, which are essential
    for early chick development.

    ...Moreover, if lipids are not fully absorbed, which seems probable, or if they are oxidized in the feed or in the lumen, they can cause serious damage to 1-week-old chicks.....Peroxides, produced by oxidative rancidity of lipids, compromise digestive tract anatomy and impair the availability of several nutrients such as fat soluble vitamins........
    According to Petersen (1971), referred by Krogdahl (1985), animal fat digestibility in chicks significantly increases with age. This
    author suggested the equation D = 60.0 + 4.0
    A – 0.07 A2 (r=.81), where D represents animal
    fat digestibility and A the bird age in weeks. As it can be seen by the equation, animal fat digestibility is very low in the first week of life. Therefore, undigested fat will remain in the intestinal tract and may be oxidized. It may also be available, as an energy source, to microorganisms present in the intestine or, at least, promote a process of steatorrhea......The higher the level of free fatty acids in feed,
    the worse the lipid digestibility. Wiseman and
    Salvador (1991) showed that free fatty acids
    impaired lipid digestibility, and this effect was
    more marked when the lipid source was tallow
    and palm oil instead of soybean oil....In some species, the excess of feed intake in early life promotes maturation of fat cells and increases their number. However, this evidence is not confirmed in broilers.....

    ....Minerals and vitamins
    Laganá et al (2004) observed that supplementation
    with organic Zn and Se (40 and 0.3
    ppm respectively and vitamins E and C 100 IU
    and 300 ppm, respectively) during the raising
    period resulted in the best feed conversion at
    14 and at 35 days. No statistical differences
    were observed between supplementation only
    with minerals or with vitamins and minerals
    Based on these observations, it is possible to
    determine what chickens need during the first
    week of life to get the best performance
    response later. The anatomical, physiological
    and nutritional aspects are very different during
    this short period of time, but can affect
    their entire lives
    ....... "

    This is but a small excerpt from this extensive paper and though it is initially geared towards broilers, much of the info is applicable to all poultry as I have ran across the info in other (applicable to non-broiler) studies/articles.

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