Winter is approaching and soon the time change will make so the only time I will interact with flock during daylight hours will be during morning. Presently I am feeding with diets that are formulated to be complete as pellets or crumbles and beginning to apply black oil sunflower seeds (BOSS) which birds preferentially consume. Rationing enough of formulated diet in morning so enough is left to fill crops just before dark increases likelihood rain will wet excess feed making a mess that will likely attract undesireable nocturnal guest. The BOSS seem to pose no such risk so I am inclined to increase the amount applied upto 25% of ration. What other types of whole grain would be suitable. I know which grains have greatest energy content but do not know which is best for chickens. I do want high energy density because when temperatures get low, I want birds to be able to crank up their thermostats without loosing to much weight each night. Birds are in pens with wind block to north and overhead cover but also must contend with elements where temperature drops to as low as 0 F.