This is a broad question. This is also dependent on soooooo many factors, from diet to breeding.
The typical hatchery production strains will often slow down big time their third year. After two or three years, some strains basically quit. Other, more heritage, or slow developing breeds can lay well, as per the laying capability of the breed, into their 5th, 6th and 7th years. There are reports of the occasional, rare bird laying almost a decade.