Polytetrafluoroethylene Toxicity in Chickens

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) is a substance used to coat shatterproof heat lamps that gives off toxic particulates at high temperatures.
  1. BantyChooks
    What is Polytetrafluroethylene and how can it harm my birds?

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic polymer with excellent lubrication and electrical insulation properties, among many others. The most common brand name for substances containing it is Teflon, a trademark by Chemours*—formerly named DuPont. In relation to the poultry world, it is used to coat shatter resistant heat bulbs. Unfortunately, the fumes from overheated PTFE are highly toxic to birds and have been the cause of many a chicken keeper's heartbreak. The reason birds are so susceptible to PTFE toxicity is their high metabolism and unique airway system. The chicken has 9 air sacs throughout the body that act as bellows to supply air to the lungs, which do not expand**. The term for this respiratory system arrangement is unidirectional, meaning that air moving through the capillaries and parabronchi move at right angles to each other. This results in an extremely efficient gas exchange, which is needed for flight, but unfortunately any toxic substances in the air are also concentrated.

    At what temperature does PTFE become dangerous?

    Many studies have shown that 280*C (538*F) is the point where PTFE toxicity becomes a surety, but DuPont studies show that Teflon undergoes pyrolysis and releases toxic particulates at temperatures as low as 230*C (446*F). According to them, at 360*C (680*F), Teflon coated pans release at least six additional toxic gases, including two carcinogens, two global pollutants, and MFA, a chemical lethal to humans at low doses. One of those gases, carbonyl fluoride, is what causes the bulk of the lung issues in birds***. At temperatures that DuPont scientists claim are reached on stovetop drip pans (537*C, 1000*F), non-stick coatings break down to a chemical warfare agent known as PFIB, and a chemical similar to the second world war nerve gas, phosgene. If the surface is scratched or otherwise damaged, the danger point is much lower. 250 watt heat lamps can exceed 250*C (480*F), which is over the point the DuPont studies proved dangerous. Poor ventilation in the coop or brooder will only increase its killing power.

    Parts of this paragraph quoted from http://buffalobirdnerd.com/clients/8963/documents/Teflon.pdf

    What are the symptoms of PTFE toxicity?

    Its progression is so rapid that many times there will not be any symptoms, only dead birds on the coop floor. When there are symptoms present, they take the form of acute respiratory distress, such as gasping for air, wheezing, incoordination, weakness, depression, tail bobbing, agitation, and dropping off the roosts. Low levels of the toxins can cause intermittent deaths over a period of weeks***. The cause of death is usually diagnosed through necropsy and a history of exposure to suspect items. Evidence visible in a necropsy is dark red lungs showing hemorrhaging and congestion, heart damage, and PTFE particles in the lungs. The last item is discernible only with a microscope. Hemorrhaging and congestion can also be present in the trachea and bronchi. Several of these signs can also be caused by other toxins, so a necropsy should not be used as sole proof. The cause of death in these birds is suffocation from fluid in the lungs. According to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276392/ , the way the bird is harmed by PTFE is injury of type 1 pneumocytes and capillary endothelial cells, allowing fluid and blood to leak into the airways. In simpler terms, it is caused by the respiratory tissue being exposed to acidic gases. Carbon monoxide may show similar symptoms to the naked eye, but the necropsy shows differences from a typical PTFE case, such as lack of the typical dark red lung colour.

    What are the treatment options?

    There is no treatment for PTFE toxicity. Supportive measures may improve survival rates. If you discover a possible PTFE toxicity event, move all survivors to fresh air immediately. Keep the bird's environment warm and calm. In a veterinary setting, the bird may be placed in an oxygen cage and be administered antibiotics and diuretics. Whether a bird survives depends on the size of the bird, how much toxic gas it inhaled, and ventilation in the affected area. If the bird lives it may have chronic respiratory issues. If there is too much damage to the lungs, the bird will usually die within 12 hours despite the best efforts of the owner or a veterinarian.

    How can I keep this from happening to my birds?

    Check the label on any heat lamp that you purchase. The box should have a warning on it if there is a coating present containing PTFE, but to be on the safe side don't buy it if the heat lamp says “shatter resistant” or has an opaque or hazy look to the top.
    PTFE free red bulb:

    PTFE free white bulb:
    Google search "Shatterproof 250w bulb" to see images of PTFE coated bulbs. Unfortunately, copyright concerns make it so that the actual images cannot be inserted in this article. If you have any images of PTFE coated heat lamps you'd be willing to allow use of, please send me a private message; I can't track down any myself.

    Cases of PTFE toxicity:

    —Many birds (52%) in a 2400 count broiler flock at a Missouri poultry research facility died over several days. Necropsy indicated exposure to noxious gas. The only changes that had been made were the addition of 48 PTFE coated heat bulbs. The poultry housing had been tested for many other gases that would produce similar signs on necropsy, and none were found. The link to the paper is here.
    —One hundred and seven chicks were killed when a non-stick cookie pan was used to catch oven drippings.
    —More than 55 birds died when water boiled off a pan.
    —A toaster with a non-stick coating was used to prepare food. The bird that was nearby survived, but with respiratory issues.
    —Fourteen birds died in fifteen minutes when 4 non-stick drip pans were pre-heated.
    —A space heater and an electric skillet were used at the same time. One bird died.
    —A grill plate was used at normal temperatures on two separate occasions. Both incidents caused the death of a nearby bird.
    —A member here had all but one of her flock members die after accidentally using a PTFE coated heat lamp. See thread here.

    Other notes: while heat lamps are the main source of PTFE toxicity, heating pads, hair dryers, and space heaters can all contain PTFE. Many of us use these items regularly near our birds with no issues, so I would surmise that items like heating pads do not get hot enough or have a sufficient percentage of PTFE to cause issues. Still, due to safety concerns, it would be ideal to dispose of old or worn out products.

    Some random PTFE trivia and links to good websites:
    Formula: (C2F4)n
    Melting point: 620.3°F (326.8°C)
    Density: 2.2 g/cm³
    IUPAC ID: poly(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethylene)
    Thermal conductivity: 0.25 W/(m·K)

    *. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teflon_(disambiguation)
    **. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276392
    ***. https://mickaboo.org/confluence/download/attachments/1179693/Teflon.pdf
    ****. http://buffalobirdnerd.com/clients/8963/documents/Teflon.pdf

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  1. duluthralphie
    Old Teflon pots and pans make great dux feeders.......
      sunflour and BantyChooks like this.
  2. sunflour
    Thank you for this important article.
      BantyChooks likes this.
  3. chickwhispers
    Thank you for an excellent article! I did not know about the shatterproof bulbs but in the interest of safety I probably would have bought them in the future had I not read this.
      Wickedchicken6 and BantyChooks like this.
  4. Farmer Connie
  5. mymilliefleur
    Excellent article on a subject that is seldom brought up. :thumbsup

    We don't even use Teflon in the kitchen anymore.
  6. 3riverschick
    Super, super post!! I would give you 100 ovations if I could!
    Huge congratulations.
  7. shawluvsbirds
  8. Jrose
    I think people should also be looking carefully at the implications here. Non-stick pans killing chickens? What's going to happen to your body when you eat the food off that pan, let alone releasing those same fumes into your home during the cooking process.
    1. BantyChooks
      Absolutely. I don't have any non-stick pans in my house (I owned budgies for ages) and refused to bring in any even when I got out of them because I don't think they're safe.
  9. Wickedchicken6
    Fantastic article Banty!!:thumbsup

    A very informative piece that's well written and concise with pertinent examples.
    Great information for all poultry enthusiasts!!!:clap
    1. BantyChooks
      Seems ya forgot to add the part about you correcting the dozens of grammatical and stylistic errors I had left in here. Wouldn't have turned out well without you!
      Skipper81, Hamiam and Wickedchicken6 like this.
    2. Wickedchicken6
      You did all the research and writing. All I did was read it over and give a few suggestions. You're just supposed to say "thank you" and accept that you did a great job! (And maybe get a new hat..lol!!!)

      You're welcome. (Hugs!) But I was mostly along for the ride. And very honoured to be as well. ;D
      Hamiam and BantyChooks like this.
  10. PouleChick
    Really interesting article. I think I'm going to ditch my remaining 2 teflon coated pans after reading comments on some other threads and now your article. Scary stuff. Thanks for your efforts including links etc - great read :goodpost:
  11. duluthralphie
    All these good things will go to her head-----Please a little more criticism is required here for balance.
    1. BantyChooks
      Too late, my hat won't fit any more.
  12. MommaRoo
    Thank you for this information, Banty Chooks! I had no idea this was an issue. I did know about birds and teflon on pans and never kept my pet bird in the kitchen for that reason. But bulbs? I will be inspecting my heat lamp today and replacing if necessary.
  13. duluthralphie
    Not a bad article. but would read much better and easier had you used a few
    Pe-Dashes here and there. They tend to make an article more authoritative as well as captivating to the reader.
    1. BantyChooks
      The day I use one of your imaginary pe-dashes is the day I am admitted to the looney bin.
  14. erlibrd
    Good job BantyChooks !
  15. Ruralhideaway
    Very well done, more complete info than I knew and I've been aware of this for years. Knowing that DuPont found some toxic release occurring at a fairly common cooking temperature is really disappointing.
  16. N F C
    Well written Banty!
  17. Hamiam
    Great job! Wow! Thank You for writing this article. I have no doubt that it will save many feathered friend lives.
  18. Wyorp Rock
    Well done @BantyChooks ! Thank you for taking the time to research and put together such a well written, informative article.
  19. pipdzipdnreadytogo
    Excellent info, Banty! I've added a link to this in my article about supplemental heat, hope you don't mind! :)
    1. BantyChooks
      I sure don't, thank you!

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