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Pasteurella

Discussion in 'Emergencies / Diseases / Injuries and Cures' started by cb-man, Aug 5, 2013.

  1. cb-man

    cb-man Out Of The Brooder

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    So I really thought my little guy had a niacin deficiency. My girlfriend called a vet and now that I look at him I think the vet is right.
    I believe our little guy has Pasteurella .
    The antibiotic the vet recommended isn't one I have found recommended for Pasteurella.
    He recommended Duramycin which is tetracycline hydrochloride

    Has anyone had Pasteurella in their ducklings?
     
  2. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    From the AAAP Avian Disease Manual:

    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Bold][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Bold]FOWL CHOLERA[/FONT][/FONT]
    (Cholera; Pasteurellosis)
    DEFINITION
    Fowl cholera is an infectious disease of poultry, waterfowl, and many other birds, usually appearing in
    poultry as an acute septicemic disease with high morbidity and mortality. A chronic, localized form occurs in
    poultry and may follow the acute form, or may occur independently.
    OCCURRENCE
    Fowl cholera is a disease of many species of birds, including chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, quail,
    canaries, and many wild and zoo birds. Perhaps all birds are susceptible under appropriate conditions. In
    poultry, most outbreaks occur in semimature or mature birds, although there are exceptions. The disease occurs
    more frequently in turkeys than in chickens. The disease occurs frequently in domesticated waterfowl and often
    causes extensive losses among wild waterfowl. Geese are highly susceptible. Fowl cholera is more likely to
    occur in birds that are stressed by such things as poor sanitation, parasitism, malnutrition, and other diseases.
    Fowl cholera occurs worldwide and is a relatively common disease. There is no relationship between cholera in
    humans and fowl cholera.
    HISTORICAL INFORMATION
    Fowl cholera has been recognized as a disease of poultry for more than 200 years. About 100 years ago,
    Pasteur isolated the organism and used it in one of the first vaccines. In the United States, Dr. Salmon studied
    the disease as early as 1880. Fowl cholera was one of four major livestock diseases that stimulated formation of
    the Veterinary Division of the United States Department of Agriculture. Although fowl cholera has been
    recognized and studied for almost 200 years, it still remains an important disease of poultry.
    ETIOLOGY
    1. The etiologic agent is


    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]Pasteurella multocida[/FONT][/FONT], a Gram-negative, bipolar-staining bacillus that grows readily
    on blood agar but not on MacConkey agar. Virulence among isolates is highly variable. Encapsulated
    strains are usually highly virulent; unencapsulated isolates are typically of low virulence.
    2. The organism varies greatly in its antigenic makeup, a characteristic responsible for difficulties in
    producing effective bacterins and vaccines. The gel diffusion precipitin test has been used to describe 16 P.
    multocida serotypes, all of which have been isolated from avian hosts. Serotypes 1, 3, and 3X4 are most
    commonly isolated from poultry outbreaks.
    3.


    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida [/FONT][/FONT]is easily destroyed by many disinfectants and by sunlight, heat, and drying. However, the
    organism persists for months in decaying carcasses and moist soil.
    EPIDEMIOLOGY
    1. Poultry flocks that have recovered from an outbreak of fowl cholera will remain carriers of


    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida[/FONT][/FONT]
    and spread the disease to susceptible flocks. These carriers harbor the organism in the choanal cleft and
    contaminate feed, water, and the environment with oral fluids. Likewise, wild birds may carry the
    organism and introduce it into the poultry flock if appropriate biosecurity practices are not followed.
    2. Several mammalian species are carriers of


    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida [/FONT][/FONT]and may introduce the organism to poultry flocks.
    Swine and raccoons have been shown to be carriers of


    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida [/FONT][/FONT]and those isolated have been shown to
    be pathogenic in poultry.
    84

    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Bold][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Bold]FOWL CHOLERA[/FONT][/FONT]
    3. Birds that die of septicemic cholera have the agent in most of their tissues. Cannibalism of sick or dead
    birds is an important method of dissemination of the disease.
    4. Resistance to cholera is correlated to humoral immunity. Immunosuppression increases susceptibility.
    5.


    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida [/FONT][/FONT]is resistant enough to be readily spread on contaminated crates, feed bags, shoes, equipment,
    etc.
    CLINICAL SIGNS
    1. With acute cholera, sudden unexpected deaths occur in the flock. Mortality often increases rapidly. Laying
    chickens may be found dead on the nest. Geese have been reported to just drop dead while walking across
    a barnyard. Poisoning is often initially suspected in outbreaks of acute cholera.
    2. Sick birds show anorexia, depression, cyanosis, rales, nasal and oral discharge of mucus, and white watery
    or green mucoid diarrhea. The course of illness is short and often followed by death. Affected chickens
    often conceal themselves under equipment.
    3. Chronic fowl cholera is most common in chickens. Often there is swelling of a joint, wattle [


    Fig. 1; Fowl
    Cholera; AAAP



    ], foot pad, or tendon sheath. Exudate, often cheesy, may accumulate in a conjunctival sac
    or infraorbital sinus. There may be torticollis in a few birds [


    Fig. 2; Fowl Cholera; AAAP].
    4. Abscesses of the infraorbital sinuses and middle ear infection resulting in torticollis, often occur in turkeys
    with chronic cholera.
    5. In turkey breeders there is a drop in egg production and increased mortality following handling of hens
    during insemination. Affected toms produce thin, watery, poor quality semen.
    LESIONS
    1. Lesions may be absent if the disease is very acute. Usually there are petechial and ecchymotic
    hemorrhages at a few sites, for example, on the heart, under serous membranes, in mucous membranes, on
    the gizzard, or in abdominal fat. There is often a generalized hyperemia of the upper intestine. Acute
    lesions develop as a result of disseminated intravascular coagulation. In layers and breeder hens, free yolk
    in the peritoneal cavity, acute oophoritis with regressing follicles, and acute diffuse peritonitis are
    frequently seen. These lesions can accompany many other acute diseases.
    2. In acute cases of cholera there often is enlargement of the liver. If the birds live a few days, there may be a
    few or many small necrotic foci in the liver [


    Fig. 3; Fowl Cholera; AAAP]. Consolidation of lungs is a
    common finding in affected turkeys [


    Fig. 4; Fowl Cholera; AAAP], [Fig. 5; Fowl Cholera; AAAP]. With
    time, these lesions become sequestered as necrotic areas in the lungs and these lung lesions often are
    extensive.
    3. In chronic cases there may be localized inflammatory lesions. These often involve a joint, tendon sheath
    [


    Fig. 6; Fowl Cholera; AAAP], wattle, conjunctival sac, infraorbital sinus, the nasal turbinates, the middle
    ear, or cranial bones at the base of the skull. Caseous exudate in a localized lesion [


    Fig. 7; Fowl Cholera;
    AAAP



    ] should arouse suspicion of cholera.
    DIAGNOSIS
    1. At necropsy, Gram-stained impression smears of liver or heart blood from septicemic cases often reveal
    bipolar-stained, Gram-negative rods suggestive of cholera. Use of blood stains or methylene blue readily
    demonstrates the bipolar morphology of the organism.
    2. Although the history, signs, and lesions may strongly suggest fowl cholera


    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic], P. multocida [/FONT][/FONT]should be isolated
    and identified for confirmation. Isolates should be tested for antibiotic susceptibility because of widespread
    85
    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Bold][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Bold]FOWL CHOLERA[/FONT][/FONT]
    resistance and should be serotyped, especially if routine treatment and vaccination procedures appear
    ineffective.
    3. Cholera must be differentiated carefully from erysipelas and acute colibacillosis in turkeys and other birds
    that are susceptible to both diseases. Erysipelas is caused by a Gram-positive rod. Cholera can be
    differentiated readily from most septicemic and viremic diseases of poultry by the isolation of


    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida[/FONT].
    4. Cholera always should be suspected if there are epizootic losses in domesticated or wild waterfowl.
    5. Related organisms can cause cholera like diseases or complicate other diseases. These include
    [/FONT]

    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]Pasteurella[/FONT][/FONT]
    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]gallinarum, P. haemolytica, P. anatipestifer, Moraxella osloensis[/FONT][/FONT]


    , and [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.[/FONT][/FONT]
    6. Several serological tests have been developed. Currently an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
    is commercially available and widely used. Serology is used primarily to evaluate efficacy of vaccination
    rather than for diagnosis of a disease outbreak.
    CONTROL
    1.


    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida [/FONT]is not transmitted through the egg. Obtain clean birds and raise them in quarantine on
    disease-free premises and away from all birds and mammals that might be carriers. Never add birds to the
    flock as they may be carriers. Avoid stresses, insofar as is possible, and practice a high standard of
    sanitation.
    2. Pick up and destroy all sick or dead birds before they can be cannibalized. Birds with cholera are teeming
    with
    [/FONT]

    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida [/FONT]and are important in the transmission of the agent. Dispose of carcasses by burying or
    burning to prevent them from being fed on by scavengers (including dogs and cats).
    3. Although bacterins are not always effective, in many instances they do a good job of immunizing birds,
    especially if they can be repeated at least once. They often are given when birds are about 8 and 12 weeks
    old. Bacterins do not provide good cross-protection between serotypes. Oil-emulsion bacterins are used to
    immunize breeders prior to production. They can cause serious drops in egg production if given to laying
    birds.
    4. Live vaccines are given via wing web inoculation to chickens and via drinking water or wing web
    inoculation to turkeys. In the United States live vaccines are based on the Clemson University (CU) strain
    of
    [/FONT]

    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida[/FONT]. This is a naturally occurring low-virulent organism. Since its introduction as a
    commercial product, two milder mutants of the original CU strain have been produced: PM-1 and M-9
    strains. They frequently are given to turkeys at 2-6- week intervals beginning at 6-7 weeks of age in the
    drinking water. Some turkey breeders are vaccinated via the wing web. Layers and breeders are
    inoculated by wing web stick at 10-11 weeks of age, and revaccinated in 6-8 weeks. Fowl pox vaccine may
    be given concurrently in the opposite wing. The live vaccines have been shown to be safe but vaccine
    reaction problems can occur in the field, presumably because of immunosuppression, concurrent diseases,
    breed sensitivity, late vaccination, or management stress such as intentional feed restriction. Parenteral
    administration may result in a localized lesion, or, more seriously, arthritis. Live vaccines confer better
    resistance than killed bacterins and offer a broad spectrum of protection against most serotypes.
    5. Following an outbreak, depopulation should be considered because many surviving birds become carriers
    and transmit
    [/FONT]

    [FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic][FONT=TimesNewRoman,Italic]P. multocida[/FONT]. Following depopulation, the premises and equipment should be thoroughly
    cleaned and disinfected and, if possible, kept free of poultry for a few weeks.
    6. Continuous medication programs have been used but are generally more costly than a vaccination program.
    7. Reduce rodents, scavengers, and predators in the farm environment and limit their contact with flocks.
    8. Differing susceptibilities among genetic lines of turkeys have been shown, suggesting that
    selection for resistance to fowl cholera may be possible.
    [/FONT]​
    86


    TREATMENT
    1. Many sulfa drugs and antibiotics will lower the mortality from cholera but mortality may resume when
    treatment is discontinued. Most medications are given in the feed or water. Sulfaquinoxaline is one of the
    better treatments but will depress egg production in layers and may throw them completely out of
    production. Care should be taken to use only those products approved by the Food and Drug

    Administration for the class of poultry being treated. Drugs and antibiotics in common use include:
    Sulfadimethoxine Tetracyclines
    Sulfaquinoxaline Erythromycin
    Sulfamethazine Streptomycin
    Penicillin

    2. Moving an infected flock to clean premises or markedly improving sanitation during an outbreak may slow
    the course of cholera. Use of live vaccine during the early course of an outbreak may be effective.
    3. If cholera cannot be controlled, it may be necessary to market the flock early. Be sure to adhere to
    regulations relating to withdrawal of medication.
    87
     
    Last edited: Aug 5, 2013
  3. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    If you aren't going to eat him, ask your vet if Clavamox or Baytril would work.

    -Kathy
     
  4. cb-man

    cb-man Out Of The Brooder

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    Wow thanks! Lot of info there. Sounds like the antibiotic we got should be right. Now I just hope it works. The little guy is quarantined right now.
    I might bring him inside with a heat lamp as I heard their body temp drops fighting infection and needs to be 85 degrees.
    We are giving the antibiotic in the water and feeding the flock raiser with brewers yeast.
    I'm also giving b complex liquid vitamins twice a day.

    Should I be treating the other 4 birds as well even though they aren't showing signs?

    Thanks for the info
     
  5. cb-man

    cb-man Out Of The Brooder

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    Nope no plans on eating him. He is a pet.
    Are those meds we could give directly in mouth through a dropper or syringe?

    We would like something more direct than just his water.
     
  6. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    Keeping him warm and hydrated is key, but do call your vet and ask about Clavamox and Baytril, those you could give orally very easily. While you're at it, ask him if he could set you up with tube feeding supplies.

    -Kathy
     
  7. cb-man

    cb-man Out Of The Brooder

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    We will do that tomorrow. We are thinking about taking him to the vet.
    If not we will get him inside first thing tomorrow. He is eating and drinking really well on his own still.
    I'm not sure I could tube a duck
     
  8. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member

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    Tubing is easy, but if he's eating and drinking, ther'es no need to.

    -Kathy
     
  9. cb-man

    cb-man Out Of The Brooder

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    Is it still ok to be supplementing niacin in the water with tablets and using the polyvisol?
    Should I only be using one at a time? Niacin tablets in water or polyvisol.
     
  10. cb-man

    cb-man Out Of The Brooder

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    Also... I'm concerned if I bring him inside for treatment how will the flock react if/when he goes back out?
     

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