Chantecler chickens were developed in the early 1900's by Brother Wilfred, a monk in Quebec who realized that Canada had no chicken breed of its own. He set out to develop a uniquely Canadian breed that would provide good eggs, meat, and could withstand harsh cold climates. Breeds that went into development of the original White Chantecler include the Dark Cornish, White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, White Wyandotte, and White Plymouth Rock. The White Chantecler was admitted into the APA Standard of Perfection in 1921.
Dr. J. E. Wilkinson of Alberta developed the Partridge variety a decade or two later by crossing the Partridge Wyandotte, Partridge Cochin, Dark Cornish, and the Rose Comb Brown Leghorn. Partridge Chanteclers were admitted into the Standard in 1935.
A third variety, Buff, is available through a few breeders and hatcheries. I don't have any information on which breeds went into their development or who developed this color. The Buff Chantecler is not yet a recognized variety by the APA, but many breeders and fanciers are working to get them recognized.
Just recently, Ideal Poultry has started offering Red Chanteclers. Not much is known about this newest variety.