History of the White Campbell duck

Discussion in 'Ducks' started by DuckyGurl, Jul 8, 2011.

  1. DuckyGurl

    DuckyGurl Overrun With Chickens

    Hi,
    As I mentioned in my other thread, I am showing my White Campbell in Showmanship. I know I found the history last year, but this year it's not ANYWHERE! So, can someone tell me the story of how the white campbell came to be? It would be greatly appreciated! Thanks!
     
  2. DuckyGurl

    DuckyGurl Overrun With Chickens

    Darn, noone knows? Oh well.
     
  3. dumb_cluck

    dumb_cluck Chillin' With My Peeps

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    Last edited: Jul 9, 2011
  4. dumb_cluck

    dumb_cluck Chillin' With My Peeps

    923
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    Mar 26, 2010
    Upstate NY
    Khaki Campbell
    From Ultimatefowl
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    A Khaki Campbell (or just Campbell) is a breed of domesticated duck kept for its high level of egg production. The breed was developed by Adele Campbell of England at the end of the 19th century. The "Khaki" portion of the name refers to the duck's typical color.

    Adult Campbell ducks weigh approximately 4 pounds. Campbells can come in three color varieties: khaki, dark and white. The Khaki Campbell duck is mostly khaki colored with a darker head. They have Mallard, Rouen and Runner duck blood in them.

    The egg production of the Campbell breed can exceed even the most efficient of egg laying domestic chickens, with the breed laying an average of 300 eggs a year.

    This breed of duck is listed as watch by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy.
    Contents
    [hide]

    * 1 History
    o 1.1 More History
    * 2 Reproduction
    * 3 Sources

    History

    In the late 1800s Adele Campbell purchased a Fawn and White Indian Runner Duck which was an exceptional layer (195 eggs in 197 days) and crossed it with a Rouen Duck in an attempt to create a strain that would lay well and have bigger bodies. The offspring were crossed with Mallards to increase their hardiness. The resulting birds were prolific layers. The "Campbell" breed was introduced to the public in 1898. In an attempt to create a more attractive buff-colored duck Mrs. Campbell crossed her original Campbells with Penciled Runner ducks. The resulting color reminded Mrs. Campbell of British army uniforms, so she named these new ducks "Khaki Campbell". In 1941 Khaki Cambell Ducks were Introduced to the American Standard of Perfection.
    More History

    Mrs. Adele Campbell of Gloucestershire, England, developed this breed late in the 1800s with the goal of providing her husband and son with a consistent supply of roast duckling. She crossed her Fawn and White Indian Runner, an exceptional layer, with a Rouen to create offspring that would lay well and have bigger bodies. From this humble foundation, one of the world's most prolific egg laying breed, the Campbell, was developed. The breed was introduced to the public in 1898 with these original Campbells resembling poorly colored Mallards. In an attempt to create a buff duck (buff colored feathers were a fad at this time), Mrs. Campbell mated her original Campbells back to Penciled Runner ducks. The resulting color, not quite buff, reminded Mrs. Campbell of British army uniforms, so she named these new ducks "Khaki Campbell." Campbells made their way to the United States in 1929 through importation by Perry Fish of Syracuse, New York. By 1941, they were recognized by the American Poultry Association in its American Standard of Perfection, but their numbers languished for many years. This changed in the 1970's when Khaki Campbell numbers increased dramatically in the United States due to a back-to-the-land movement, a surge of duck-egg-loving Asian immigrants after the Vietnam War, and the importation of a particularly productive strain of Khaki Campbells in 1977.

    The Campbell duck is a medium sized bird that on average weighs 4 to 4 1/2 pounds. They are active, streamlined birds with a modestly long head, bill, neck, and body, and a sprightly body carriage of 20 to 40 degrees above horizontal. There are four color varieties of Campbell ducks in North America: Khaki, White, Dark, and Pied, with Khaki being the most common. The Khaki drake has a green bill, rich dark orange legs and feet, and dark brown eyes. Its head, upper neck, lower back, and tail culverts are brown-bronze while the rest of the drake's plumage is a warm khaki. The Khaki duck has a green bill and dark brown eyes and its legs and feet are brown. The ducks head, upper neck, and lower back are seal-brown and the rest of the plumage is khaki. Dark Campbells, developed in Europe in an attempt to provide sex linkage, are a darker version of the Khaki. The White Campbell, bred as a "sport" variety, is pure white, with vivid orange legs, feet, and bill. The Pied has fawn plumage.

    Campbells are prolific layers and active foragers. Most Campbells lay their first eggs when 5-7 months old and will average 250-340 eggs of superb texture and flavor per year. With an age staggered flock, one may have eggs year-round. Campells are high-strung and energetic, and need plenty of space to graze and forage. (Ives, 228) "If they consume an adequate diet, are kept calm, provided sufficient space, and run in flocks consisting of no more than 50 to a maximum of 200 birds, Campbells have proven to be amazingly adaptable. They have performed admirably in environments ranging from arid deserts with temperatures of 100oF. to humid tropical rainforests with more than 200 inches of annual precipitation to cold Northern regions where temperatures can remain below 0oF for weeks at a time."

    When choosing breeders, select robust, active, strong-legged birds with a history of good laying and foraging ability. Make sure you acquire authentic Campbells that have been selected for egg production. Crossbreeds with telltale signs of facial stripes or weights above six pounds may be sold as Campbells, but they do not lay well.

    ALBC's 2000 census of domestic waterfowl in North America found 2,613 breeding Campbell ducks. Nineteen people reported breeding Campbells, and there are 9 primary breeding flocks with 50 or more breeding birds currently in existence. Consider this adaptable, excellent layer for a lovely and useful addition to your flock.
    Reproduction

    Khaki Campbells become sexually mature at approximately 6 months. Khaki Campbell hens very seldom will hatch out their own young. Brooding behavior has been sacrificed in exchange for prolific egg laying ability in this breed. Mechanical incubators or broody chickens are used to hatch out Khaki Campbell ducklings. It takes approximately 28 days for a Khaki Campbell duckling to hatch.
    Sources

    * Wikipedia
    * American Livestock Breed Conservancy
     

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