I was thinking about AI. Our previous pigs in the Philippines were impregnated through AI. I have done it with cows as well but I thought that goats required a laparoscopic procedure though. As I opened the thread my torrents app told me that "Artificial Insemination in Farm Animals" just downloaded. 320 pages of must read material lol Productivity in sheep and goats could be increased, by improving the quality of the spermatozoa assigned for use in AI, and improving the AI techniques in these species. Recent innovations in sheep breeding include the development of a flexible catheter at the National Center for Genetic Resource Preservation, Fort Collins, Colorado, that can be inserted through the ovine cervix, thus overcoming the barrier to effective AI in this species. AI in sheep and goats is traditionally performed with fresh or cooled spermatozoa, with acceptable fertility results. However, use of foreign breeds, genetic improvement and the use of “safe” semen from other countries requires the use of frozen semen, to enable analyses for contaminants or diseases in the “donor” male to be completed before the semen doses are used for AI. Although the post-thaw motility of frozen semen from goats and sheep is usually considered acceptable, low fertility has been associated with its use in AI, mainly owing to a shortened lifespan of the spermatozoa.