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Discussion in 'Incubating & Hatching Eggs' started by ozexpat, Dec 25, 2012.
Good question.... I too will be curious to read the answer....
Web stick is exactly what it says, a shot that is really just a prick (stick) done in the thin layer of skin (web) between the shoulder and the "wrist" on the wing. Much easier, and I would think much less painful, than an IM or SQ injection.
Fowl pox is a bit like small pox. The vaccination requires a skin prick with a double needle to make a "mother" pox scar
and why is it that, a double needle is used? Sorry I'm just full of questions
its faster. the needle is dipped in the vaccine and then you stab the chick
There are six closely related strains of pox virus. These are fowl pox, pigeon pox, quail pox, canary pox, psittacine pox, and ratite pox. Pigeon pox infects pigeons, chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese. Canary pox infects canaries, chickens, sparrows, and probably other species. In some instances, but not always, exposure to one of the viruses stimulates development of immunity to that virus and one or more of the other viruses.
Pox can be prevented in chickens, turkeys and pigeons by vaccination, but there is no effective commercial vaccine against canary pox.
Chickens and pigeons are usually vaccinated by the wing web stick method. An applicator with two slotted needles is dipped in vaccine and thrust through the wing web. Turkeys are not generally vaccinated by the wing web route. Turkeys sleep with their head under the wing. Conjunctival (eye) pox can occur if the vaccine is administered to turkeys via the wing web. Instead, turkeys are vaccinated by a thigh-stick method.
On farms with severe fowl pox problems, vaccination of all domestic poultry may be necessary. All domestic chicks and poults can be vaccinated at 1 day of age, pullets at 10 to 12 weeks, and turkeys at 8 to 14 weeks or when moved to range.
In endemic areas, the prevailing virus type should be determined. Quail pox has been shown to affect chickens. There is no cross protection between quail pox and fowl pox. Vaccination for both may be necessary if both are endemic in the area. Flocks can be given fowl pox vaccination to reduce the severity of an outbreak.
Do not vaccinate unless you have a problem on your farm or in your area. The virus is spread from bird to bird through the bites of blood-sucking insects (such as mosquitos) or through wounds and scratches by the birds when fighting. If there is a heavy mosquito infestation in an area, small flock owners may consider vaccinating with fowl pox vaccine.
In problem areas requiring fowl-pox vaccination of baby chicks, the flock should be revaccinated after reaching 8 weeks of age or older to assure lasting immunity.
Very interesting stuff
Living where we do, it seem that we have a few endemic diseases - fowl pox being the stand-out.
Our chicks from the locally laid eggs got hit pretty hard last week. We lost a few but most recovered pretty quickly.
The vaccination is cheap so I figure its worth it.
Here is the info from the vaccine manafacturer
Fowl Pox Vaccine
For veterinary use only
Read in full, follow directions carefully.
Chick-N-Pox TC, brand of Fowl Pox Vaccine, is recommended for wing-web stab of healthy chickens of any age against fowl pox.
Store this vaccine at not over 45°F (7°C).
Do not vaccinate within 21 days before slaughter.
Use entire contents when vial is first opened.
Burn vaccine container and all unused contents.
WHEN TO VACCINATE
Broiler or other Growing Chickens: Vaccination with Chick-N-Pox TC may be performed as early as 1 day of age where ever there is a history of early occurrence of fowl pox. If chicks are vaccinated against fowl pox at 1 day of age, revaccinate them at 12 weeks of age with Poxine.
Laying Chickens: If laying chickens are not adequately protected and are threatened by fowl pox occurring nearby, vaccinate them immediately with Chick-N-Pox TC.
1. Rehydrate 1 vial of vaccine with 1 vial of diluent.
2. Remove aluminum seal and rubber stopper from vaccine vial and diluent vial. Avoid contamination of the stopper and vial contents.
3. Pour the diluent into the vial containing the vaccine.
4. Put stopper back in place and shake the vial until all of the contents are dissolved. The vaccine is then ready for use.
3. Pour approximately one-half the diluent into the vaccine vial. Replace stopper and shake gently until contents are dissolved.
4. Pour all the reconstituted vaccine back into the remaining diluent in the diluent bottle. Replace diluent stopper and gently mix. The vaccine is then ready for use.
5. Hold individual bird and spread wing with the underside facing upwards.
6. Dip the vaccinator tool into the vaccine, wetting both needles.
7. Stick the needles through the web of the wing, avoiding blood vessels, bones, and the wing muscle. The vaccine should not touch feathers, the head of the birds, or the skin except at the site of vaccination.
HOW TAKES APPEAR
The usual take consists of some swelling at the site of the puncture as early as the fourth day following vaccination. The swelling increases during the next five days until a scab is formed. Revaccinate birds that do not show takes.
I am assuming that this is for a serious variety of fowlpox? I may or may not have some in my flock, I don't know. Just have one bird with a decent sized black area with whitish edges on the comb and 1-2 birds with a few specks. They've had it for months, never got bigger or smaller.. so I didn't worry too much about it. It frankly looks like someone pooped on her head *laugh* I don't put anything past these girls.
I googled 'fowlpox' and the majority of images have birds much like mine, although a little more coverage. Only a few of the birds pictured are covered all over with pox, to the point of death.
So I guess you vaccinate for the variety that would cover the whole body and cause death? Or am I missing the seriousness of the splotches on their combs?
Its the same pox. Sometimes the lesions form on the respiratory mucosa instead of the crest.
Avian pox is a relatively slow-spreading viral disease in birds, characterized by wart-like nodules on the skin and diphtheritic necrotic membranes lining the mouth and upper respiratory system. It has been present in birds since the earliest history. Mortality is not usually significant unless the respiratory involvement is marked. The disease may occur in any age of bird, at any time.
Avian pox is caused by a virus of which there are at least three different strains or types; fowl pox virus, pigeon pox virus and canary pox virus. Although some workers include turkey pox virus as a distinct strain, many feel that is identical to fowl pox virus.
Each virus strain is infective for a number of species of birds. Natural occurring pox in chickens, turkeys and other domestic fowl is considered to be caused by fowl pox virus.
Fowl pox can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact. The virus is highly resistant in dried scabs and under certain conditions may survive for months on contaminated premises. The disease may be transmitted by a number of species of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes can harbor infective virus for a month or more after feeding on affected birds. After the infection is introduced, it spreads within the flock by mosquitoes as well as direct and indirect contact. Recovered birds do not remain carriers.
Since fowl pox usually spreads slowly, a flock may be affected for several months. The course of the disease in the individual bird takes three to five weeks. Affected young birds are retarded in growth. Laying birds experience a drop in egg production. Birds of all ages that have oral or respiratory system involvement have difficulty eating and breathing. The disease manifests itself in one or two ways, cutaneous pox (dry form) or diphtheritic pox (wet form).
Dry pox starts as small whitish foci that develop into wart-like nodules. The nodules eventually are sloughed and scab formation precedes final healing. Lesions are most commonly seen on the featherless parts of the body (comb, wattles, ear lobes, eyes, and sometimes the feet).
Wet pox is associated with the oral cavity and the upper respiratory tract, particularly the larynx and trachea. The lesions are diphtheritic in character and involve the mucous membranes to such a degree that when removed, an ulcerated or eroded area is left.
Fowl pox is readily diagnosed on the basis of flock history and presence of typical lesions. In some cases, laboratory diagnosis by tissue or transmission studies is necessary.
There is no treatment for fowl pox. Disease control is accomplished best by preventative vaccination since ordinary management and sanitation practices will not prevent it. Several kinds of vaccines are available and are effective if used properly.
Vaccination of broilers is not usually required unless the mosquito population is high or infections have occurred previously. The chicks may be vaccinated as young as one day of age by using the wing-web method and using a one needle applicator. All replacement chickens are vaccinated against fowl pox when the birds are six to ten weeks of age. One application of fowl pox vaccine results in permanent immunity.