Pennsylvania!! Unite!!

Discussion in 'Where am I? Where are you!' started by LeBlackbird, Sep 24, 2009.

  1. Sally Sunshine

    Sally Sunshine Cattywampus Angel <straightens Halo> Premium Member Project Manager

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    ATTN all BRAHMA COCHIN lubbers.......... thought I could wake ya up with this...........................

    I found this in case some of you hadnt run into it!! http://www.brahmacochin.org/poultrybreedingtips.htm

    GUIDE TO AID breeders of not only Brahma and Cochin but all poultry breeds, when crossing of different colours is required in order to produce a particular colour, or to improve breed characteristics in a colour variety.
    Black, Blue, Splash
    We will look at Black, Blue and Splash first. The colours blue and splash are based on a black bird. What makes them look different is the presence of an incompletely dominant, autosomal gene, called Blue (Bl). A bird which is heterozygous for the gene Bl will be blue and a bird which is homozygous (pure) for the Bl gene will be splash. The colours Blue and Splash can vary dramatically in shade and pattern; this is due partly to the variation in the expression of the Bl gene and also the presence of other genes which may interact to modify the colour.
    Ignoring variation in shades and patterns of Blue and Splash there are always some certainties when breeding the colours. The expected outcomes from mating these three colours together are listed below.
    Black x Black = All Black birds
    Black x Blue = 50% Black and 50% Blue
    Black x Splash = 100% Blue
    Blue x Blue = 25% Black, 50% Blue and 25% Splash
    Blue x Splash = 50% Blue and 50% Splash
    Splash x Splash = 100% Splash
    The expected percentage of colours hatched is not affected by the sex of the birds mated together as the Bl gene is autosomal (locatd on chromosomes not involved in specifying sex). E.g. a black rooster can be mated with a blue hen and vice versa and the expected ratios of colours in the hatch is always the same.
    Black & Barred
    Now we will look at Black and Barred in relation to sex-linked barring. For sex-linked barring, a barred bird is essentially a black bird which possesses a dominant, sex linked, gene called Barring (B).
    A bird which is heterozygous for the B gene will be barred and a bird which is homozygous (pure) for the B gene will also be barred, however the homozygous bird will have wider white bands because of a gene dosage effect (i.e. two copies of the B gene will increase size of white banding on the black bird). Now the tricky thing to remember is males can possess two copies of the B gene whilst females can only possess one. Because females can only posses one B gene they are called hemizygous and not heterozygous.
    This is because the B gene is located on chromosomes which determine the sex of an individual, termed sex chromosomes. The two sex chromosomes in chooks are called Z and W. Females have a Z and W (ZW) chromosome and males have two Z chromosomes (ZZ). The W chromosome in females is very small and does not carry the same genetic information as the larger Z chromosome. In humans we call our sex chromosomes X and Y and the pairing of these chromosomes is reversed between the sexes. So human females have two X chromosomes (XX) and males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY), with the Y chromosome being small and carrying less genetic information.
    We call the sex possessing two copies of the same sex chromosome the homogametic sex and the sex possessing one of each type of sex chromosome the heterogametic sex.
    Not all sex-linked barred birds have the same barring pattern. Many combinations of genes can go into making a barred bird differ in its appearance. For example, the barring on an exhibition quality Plymouth Rock is clean and regular, whilst the barring on a cuckoo bird is generally indistinct and irregular. The variability is caused by differences in the expression of the same genetic mutation on different genetic backgrounds.
    To simplify the terminology I will refer to homozygous Barred males as twice Barred males, heterozygous Barred males as single Barred males and hemizygous Barred females as Barred females. The expected outcomes from mating these colours together are listed below:
    Black x Black = 100% Black males and females
    Black male x Barred female = 100% single Barred males x 100% Black females
    Single Barred male x Black female = 50% single Barred males and Barred females and 50% Black males and females
    Twice Barred male x Black female = 100% single Barred males and 100% Barred females
    Twice Barred male x Barred female = 100% twice Barred males and 100% Barred females
    Light, Blue light, Buff Columbian, Blue Buff Columbian and White Buff Columbian
    The colour differences between Lights, Blue Lights, Buff Columbians and Blue Buff columbians are produced by the presence or absence of two dominant genes; the autosomal, incompletely dominant gene Blue (Bl) and the sex-linked gene Silver (S). The alternatives to Bl and S are bl (black) and s (gold) respectively. The expected outcomes from mating Light and Blue Light and Buff Columbian and Blue Buff Columbian are the same as you would expect from mating Blue to Black. These outcomes are listed below.
    Light x Light = 100% Light
    Light x Blue Light = 50% Light and 50% Blue Light
    Light x Splash Light = 100% Blue Light
    Blue Light x Blue Light = 25% Light, 50% Blue Light and 25% Splash Light
    Blue Light x Splash Light = 50% Blue Light and 50% Splash Light
    Splash Light x Splash Light = 100% Splash Light
    Splash Lights will appear almost white, generally you will see some light blue feathers or parts of feathers around the neck hackle and tail which will provide a clue as to their genetic makeup.
    Buff Columbian x Buff Columbian = 100% Buff Columbian
    Buff Columbian x Blue Buff Columbian = 50% Buff Columbian and 50% Blue Buff Columbian
    Buff Columbian x Splash Buff Columbian = 100% Blue Buff Columbian
    Blue Buff Columbian x Blue Buff Columbian = 25% Buff Columbian, 50% Blue Buff Columbian and 25% Splash Buff Columbian
    Blue Buff Columbian x Splash Buff Columbian = 50% Blue Buff Columbian and 50% Splash Buff Columbian
    Splash Buff Columbian x Splash Buff Columbian = 100% Splash Buff Columbian
    The neck hackle, tail and portions of the primary flight feathers of Splash Buff Columbians will appear white, however there will generally be some feathers or sections of feathers which are blue.
    The expected percentage of colours hatched is not affected by the sex of the birds mated together as the Bl gene is autosomal (located on chromosomes not involved in specifying sex). E.g. a black rooster can be mated with a blue hen and vice versa and the expected ratios of colours in the hatch is always the same.
    Where expected percentages of colours hatched will be affected by the sex of the birds mated together is when birds carrying the sex-linked gene Silver (S) and its counterpart gold (s) are involved. E.g. when Buff Columbians are crossed to Lights and vice versa. This also applies to Blue Buff Columbians, Blue lights and other combinations. The expected outcomes from such crosses are listed below.
    Light male x Buff Columbian female = 100% Light (hiding Buff) males x 100% Light females
    Buff Columbian male x Light female = 100% Light (hiding Buff) males and 100% Buff Columbian females
    Light male (hiding Buff) x Light female = 25% Light males, 25% Light males (hiding Buff), 25% Light females and 25% Buff Columbian females
    Light male (hiding Buff) x Buff Columbian female = 25% Buff Columbian males, 25% Light males (hiding Buff), 25% Light females and 25% Buff Columbian females
    Light males (hiding Buff) will look like a Light male because the Silver gene is dominant over its alternative the Gold gene. So heterozygotes for Silver and Gold look like a Light. However, the gold can sometimes 'leak' through in the plumage, particularly around the neck and saddle hackle and on the wing . This is not always a certainty and often Light males (hiding Buff) can appear to be a pure Light male. In this instance the males genetic makeup is ony revealed when some of his daughters turn out to be Buff Columbian even though he was mated to a Light female. At first, the results of these crosses may seem odd but if we think about the inheritance of sex-linked genes it makes sense. Remember males can possess two copies of either the Silver or Gold gene or a combination of both genes whilst females can only possess one of the alternatives. Because females can only posses one Silver or one Gold gene they are called hemizygous and not heterozygous.
    This is because the Silver and Gold genes are located on chromosomes which determine the sex of an individual, termed sex chromosomes. The two sex chromosomes in chooks are called Z and W. Females have a Z and W (ZW) chromosome and males have two Z chromosomes (ZZ). The W chromosome in females is very small and does not carry the same genetic information as the larger Z chromosome. In humans we call our sex chromosomes X and Y and the pairing of these chromosomes is reversed between the sexes. So human females have two X chromosomes (XX) and males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY), with the Y chromosome being small and carrying less genetic information.
    We call the sex possessing two copies of the same sex chromosome the homogametic sex and the sex possessing one of each type of sex chromosome the heterogametic sex.
    Dark, Blue Dark, Partridge and Blue Partridge
    The colour differences between Darks, Blue Darks, Partridge and Blue Partridge are produced by the presence or absence of two dominant genes; the autosomal, incompletely dominant gene Blue (Bl) and the sex-linked gene Silver (S). The alternatives to Bl and S are bl (black) and s (gold) respectively. The expected outcomes from mating Dark and Blue Dark and Partridge and Blue Partridge are the same as you would expect from mating Blue to Black. These outcomes are listed below.
    Dark x Dark = 100% Dark
    Dark x Blue Dark = 50% Dark and 50% Blue Dark
    Dark x Splash Dark = 100% Blue Dark
    Blue Dark x Blue Dark = 25% Dark, 50% Blue Dark and 25% Splash Dark
    Blue Dark x Splash Dark = 50% Blue Dark and 50% Splash Dark
    Splash Dark x Splash Dark = 100% Splash Dark
    Splash Darks will look simialr to a Splash (produced from a Blue), generally you will see some light blue feathers or parts of feathers on a mostly white bird.
    Partridge x Partridge = 100% Partridge
    Partridge x Blue Partridge = 50% Partridge and 50% Blue Partridge
    Partridge x Splash Partridge = 100% Blue Partridge
    Blue Partridge x Blue Partridge = 25% Partridge, 50% Blue Partridge and 25% Splash Partridge
    Blue Partridge x Splash Partridge = 50% Blue Partidge and 50% Splash Parrtidge
    Splash Partridge x Splash Partridge = 100% Splash Partridge
    Males of Splash Partridge will look like a Pile male but some feathers or parts of feathers will have light blue or blue instead of being white. Female Splash Partridge will appear mostly white but with red patterning in the feathers and patches of light blue or blue in some feathers.
    The expected percentage of colours hatched is not affected by the sex of the birds mated together as the Bl gene is autosomal (located on chromosomes not involved in specifying sex). E.g. a black rooster can be mated with a blue hen and vice versa and the expected ratios of colours in the hatch is always the same.
    Where expected percentages of colours hatched will be affected by the sex of the birds mated together is when birds carrying the sex-linked gene Silver (S) and its counterpart gold (s) are involved. E.g. when a Partridge is crossed to a Dark and vice versa. This also applies to Blue Partridge, Blue Darks and other combinations. The expected outcomes from such crosses are listed below.
    Dark male x Partridge female = 100% Dark (hiding Partridge) males x 100% Dark females
    Partridge male x Dark female = 100% Dark (hiding Partridge) males and 100% Partridge females
    Dark male (hiding Partridge) x Dark female = 25% Dark males, 25% Dark males (hiding Partridge), 25% Dark females and 25% Partridge females
    Dark male (hiding Partridge) x Partridge female = 25% Partridge males, 25% Dark males (hiding Partridge), 25% Dark females and 25% Partridge females
    Dark males (hiding Partridge) will look like a Dark male because the Silver gene is dominant over its alternative the Gold gene. So heterozygotes for Silver and Gold look like a Dark. However, the gold can sometimes 'leak' through in the plumage, particularly on the wing and around the neck and saddle hackle. This is not always a certainty and sometimes Dark males (hiding Partridge) can appear to be a pure Dark male. In this instance the males genetic makeup is ony revealed when some of his daughters turn out to be Partridge even though he was mated to a Dark female. At first, the results of these crosses may seem odd but if we think about the inheritance of sex-linked genes it makes sense. Remember males can possess two copies of either the Silver or Gold gene or a combination of both genes whilst females can only possess one of the alternatives. Because females can only posses one Silver or one Gold gene they are called hemizygous and not heterozygous.
    This is because the Silver and Gold genes are located on chromosomes which determine the sex of an individual, termed sex chromosomes. The two sex chromosomes in chooks are called Z and W. Females have a Z and W (ZW) chromosome and males have two Z chromosomes (ZZ). The W chromosome in females is very small and does not carry the same genetic information as the larger Z chromosome. In humans we call our sex chromosomes X and Y and the pairing of these chromosomes is reversed between the sexes. So human females have two X chromosomes (XX) and males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY), with the Y chromosome being small and carrying less genetic information.
    We call the sex possessing two copies of the same sex chromosome the homogametic sex and the sex possessing one of each type of sex chromosome the heterogametic sex.
     
  2. sharron

    sharron Chillin' With My Peeps

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    thanks sally, i have some brahmas, bought eggs and hatched a few from dan power lines, have supposely the buff laced, the gold laced , one blue roo, and a couple of hens turned out pure white, a couple have a light cream wash, but either way, beautiful chickens, can't wait for them to start laying, then will see what i get. to be honest, never thought of crossing with cochins. would have to buy some standards, only have bantams.[​IMG]
     
  3. Sally Sunshine

    Sally Sunshine Cattywampus Angel <straightens Halo> Premium Member Project Manager

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    My Coop
    Gold Laced Wyandotte Question!! I THOUGHT this was a hen, DOB May 13th... but I havent been hanging out at the coop since I have been so busy with puppies and peepers, and she really doesnt hang out with anyone else either, No crowing but My SLW Roo stopped crowing months ago! 1st pic is NOW and second pic was just 2 weeks ago!!!! wtheck!!

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    My Silver Laced Wyandotte Roo same age
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  4. sgtmom52

    sgtmom52 Birds &amp; Bees

    Looks like a hen to me ~ getting ready to start laying soon.
     
  5. Sally Sunshine

    Sally Sunshine Cattywampus Angel <straightens Halo> Premium Member Project Manager

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    Thanks!! I sure hope so!! Stinkers better get with it!!
     
  6. Sally Sunshine

    Sally Sunshine Cattywampus Angel <straightens Halo> Premium Member Project Manager

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    My Coop
    "Hinkel Haus" made of pallets and recycled wood picket fencing. ..

    Hinkel is PA Dutch for Chicken btw!
    Mostly recycled materials for the coop, two paint colors, all we have to finish up is our storage "step" under the door and some purdy lanscaping!

    Note that I still didnt get to the front storage step, AND even though the front and rear eves are wired for ventilation we still are going to add side vents on top because it seems humid in there in the morning from having LF in it and they put out ALOT of MOISTURE breathing.... I will add plexiglass behind both windows that are screened for more light, and I am lowering the roost on the right a bit and putting a pc of luan under to act as a poop board so I can keep it cleaner in there and have more clean floor space for wintertime, we also already added the wiring for a timed light that we protected with a small wire egg basket upsidedown. and a pc of removable board at the door so the shavings or straw dont fall out or scratch against and puddle at ur feet when u open it! : )


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    Window closed & window open

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    more recycled pickets for flower box and a little paint and sharpie made the Brahma hen

    & Locken up below

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    the chickens door to go out to run from inside

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    pic from under double roost (at both ends) PS I NEED to make a poop board... on my list for a cleaner coop!

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    roosting from above

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    other side low roosts for heavier birds
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    below is an old garage shelving unit turned nest boxes, curtains for privacy lol

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    NOTES: even though front eves and rear are wired for ventilation, I want to LOWER the roosts and add more cross ventilation from each sides with cheap screaned vents

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    Part of the Run

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    My large Dog house conversion for silkies

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    RAIN RAIN GO AWAY!!
     
    Last edited: Oct 6, 2012
  7. Baym

    Baym Chillin' With My Peeps

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    That looks really nice. Well done.
     
  8. mama2my4

    mama2my4 Chillin' With My Peeps

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    Julian, PA
    Looks great Sally! Wanna come build me one??
     
  9. patrickschick

    patrickschick Chillin' With My Peeps

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    Looks Good Sal! Off to build mine. Atleast contain the herd! The neighbors up the ways don't want feathered visitors lol. 7 acres and they have to go up to the neighbors! [​IMG]
     
  10. NJchixs

    NJchixs Chillin' With My Peeps

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    Jackson, NJ
    Wow Sally your coop has such personality. Mine is to blah. I going to try to spruce it p this spring because now it just looks like The Chicken Penitentiary. And I am so bummed my two Easter eggers just started laying and the eggs are light BROWN! Ugh, just my luck.
     

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