So it appears that it is a combination of treaties from as far back as the Revolutionary war and as recent as when the Spanish gave up control of Florida that are all players in the boundaries... Alabama's Southern Gulf "foot"—the area south of the 31st parallel and west of the Perdido River—originated from the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, but its history dates back to 1719. At that time, France controlled Mobile Bay and Spain controlled Pensacola Bay just to the east. To resolve disputes over shipping rights and trade, the French commander at New Orleans and the Spanish commander at Pensacola agreed to recognize the Perdido River, a small stream halfway between Mobile and Pensacola, as the border between their respective jurisdictions. Some 80 years later, in 1803, shrewd American diplomats negotiating the Louisiana Purchase in Paris invoked this informal 1719 agreement as the precedent for setting the Perdido River as the eastern limit of the Louisiana Purchase. Because all of Florida east of the Perdido River remained in Spanish hands until 1819, Florida's panhandle region did not become part of Alabama. After Louisiana achieved statehood in 1812, Congress added the last eastern remnant of the Louisiana Purchase, between the Pearl River in present-day Mississippi and the Perdido rivers, to the Mississippi Territory. This "Addition of 1812" ultimately became the Gulf "foot" portions of Mississippi and Alabama. dsqard, Hurricane Ivan was terrifying! I'm glad I didn't have chickens then...I'd have been a nervous wreck! Navarre took quite a hit from it, you got out at a good time.