pdirt wrote: For the horizontal nipples, I used a 250W stock tank de-icer. IIRC, it comes on at 35F and shuts off at 45F, so even though it's 250W, it takes less time to heat the water and doesn't heat it as much. I have horizontal nipples on a 5 gal bucket and they are working fine now, but I will need to think about winter. Do most stock tank deicers come with something that turns on and off with changes in the water temperature? Are they appropriate for a 5 gal plastic pail?