Worming Studies and References

Discussion in 'Emergencies / Diseases / Injuries and Cures' started by casportpony, Nov 23, 2015.

  1. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member Project Manager

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    Syngamus trachea (Gapeworm)


    Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6750887

    Efficacy of fenbendazole against helminth parasites of poultry in Uganda.

    Ssenyonga GS.
    Abstract

    Fenbendazole 4% (Panacur, Hoechst) administered in feed was used to treat chickens infected with Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Railletina spp. It was also used to treat Syngamus trachea in broiler birds. There was a marked drop in helminth egg counts in the faeces on the second day of treatment and the faeces became negative by the seventh day after the last treatment. Post-mortem examination 15 to 21 days later showed that the drug was 100% effective against Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum at 10 mg/kg. However, for complete removal of Railletina spp. 15 mg/kg was required. Similarly 20 mg/kg fenbendazole was effective against Syngamus trachea. It was concluded that fenbendazole is suitable for the treatment of the important intestinal and tracheal worms of poultry, a dose of 15 to 20 mg/kg for 3 consecutive days being recommended for use under field conditions.




    Source: http://eurekamag.com/research/007/133/007133599.php
    Comparative anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole thiabendazole and albendazole against syngamus trachea infection in chicken


    Devada K.; Sathianesan V., 1989: Comparative anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole thiabendazole and albendazole against syngamus trachea infection in chicken. Kerala Journal Of Veterinary Science. 20(1): 59-64


    Three anthelmintics viz., mebendazole, (Gulfic) thiabendazole (MSD) and albendazole (SKF) were tried against Syngamus trachea infection in chicken under experimental conditions. Mebendazole dosed at a rate of 40 mg per kg body weight was found to be most effective with 96.22 per cent reduction of eggs in the droppings, 88.1 per cent of disappearance of worms in the trachea and 95.52 per cent of weight gain of the treated birds. This was closely followed by albendazole administered at 15 mg per kg body weight, which had an efficacy of 95.14 per cent 76.19 per cent and 95.02 per cent in the respective three parameters. Thiabendazole given at a dose rate of 500 mg per kg body weight showed an efficacy of 89.27, 45.24 per cent and 94.18 perccent based on the egg counts, worm counts and gain in body weight of the medicated chicks respectively. Thiabendazole was found to be the least effective when compared to the other drugs tried.



    Source: http://eurekamag.com/research/003/122/003122652.php
    Efficacy of albendazole against Syngamus trachea in experimentally infected turkeys

    Istvan, Varga; Gyorgy, Banhidi; Zoltan, Szell; Csaba, Balint, 1998: Efficacy of albendazole against Syngamus trachea in experimentally infected turkeys.Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja. 120(6): 336-338, E

    Efficacy of albendazole of Syngamus trachea tested in groups of 8 to 9 turkeys experimentally infected with 500 larvae each at the age of 8 days. From day 17 after infection, the animals were orally dosed with albendazole at 10, 5 or 2 mg/kg b.w. over 3 to 5 successive days. The efficacy was evaluated by daily inspection of symptoms, daily faecal egg counts and worm counts at post mortem on day 24 after infection. The efficacy in the treated groups amounted to 100%, 100% and 94%, respectively. Remnants of wormpairs - mainly disintegrating males - were found in several animals of medicated groups as against all alive wormpairs in the control turkeys. The study shows high efficacy of albendazole at reduced dose rate against patent gapeworm disease in turkey.


    Source:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9269125
    Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin against Syngamus trachea and Capillaria spp. in pheasant.

    Lamka J1, Svobodová V, Slézková J.
    Author information


    Abstract

    Ivermectin (IVM) was perorally administered in dosage schemes 1 x 0.8 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.), 1 x 1.6 mg/kg h.w., 3 x 0.8 mg/kg b.w., and 3 x 1.6 mg/kg b.w. to pheasants infected by Syngamus trachea and Capillaria spp. The samples of faeces were coprologically examined. The clinical state of pheasant was controlled. In all of the used therapeutical schemes the helminthostatic or partially helminthocide effect against adults of worms was reached. The clinical signs of helmithoses were reduced only. IVM in tested doses is not possible to recommend as an effective drug of pheasant syngamosis and capillariosis.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2816174
    Ivermectin as a bird anthelmintic--trials with naturally infected domestic fowl.
    Oksanen A, Nikander S.
    Abstract
    To evaluate the use of ivermectin as a bird anthelmintic, 29 White Leghorn hens naturally infected with Ascaridia spp., Heterakis spp. and Capillaria spp. were treated with 0.2, 2 or 6 mg/kg intramuscularly or 0.2 or 0.8 mg/kg orally. Faecal samples were collected before treatment and at autopsy, 2, 6, or 16 days after treatment, when the intestines were also examined for helminths. None of the treatments gave satisfactory anthelmintic results.
     
    Last edited: Oct 30, 2017
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  2. Weehopper

    Weehopper Songster

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    Very interesting. Thanks for posting this.
     
  3. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member Project Manager

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    source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/6868306/?i=5&from=/6743169/related
    Efficacy of fenbendazole against nematodes of captive birds.

    Lawrence K. Vet Rec. 1983.
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    Abstract

    Fenbendazole was used to treat nematode infestations (Ascaridia species and Capillaria species) in 230 birds of six orders and 38 different species. Using a single dose of 100 mg/kg bodyweight initial treatment eliminated parasitic nematodes from 221 birds. A further course of treatment at a dose rate of 30 mg/kg daily for seven days eliminated the infestation from the remaining nine birds.

    -Kathy
     
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  4. Folly's place

    Folly's place Free Ranging

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    Also note the date of that study; 1983. Good information, but dated. It's a difficult trade-off between trying to use the very few approved drugs, and finding something that's effective, but not likely to linger in the bird. Effectiveness also depends on previous use (or overuse) in a specific location. Nothing trumps good husbandry, genetics, and biosecurity. Mary
     
  5. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member Project Manager

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    I've also seen other references to treating capillary worms with one large dose of fenbendazole. Not saying people should try it, just want to share info that I've found. Sadly, many people think that a single dose at 5mg/kg (1/2 cc Safeguard for an averaged sized hen) will treat capillary worms. And the one that bugs me the most is the "3 cc (300 mg) in one gallon for three days". :he

    -Kathy
     
    Last edited: Nov 25, 2015
  6. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member Project Manager

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    Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1989 Sep;36(7):495-9.
    Ivermectin as a bird anthelmintic--trials with naturally infected domestic fowl.

    Oksanen A, Nikander S.
    Abstract

    To evaluate the use of ivermectin as a bird anthelmintic, 29 White Leghorn hens naturally infected with Ascaridia spp., Heterakis spp. and Capillaria spp. were treated with 0.2, 2 or 6 mg/kg intramuscularly or 0.2 or 0.8 mg/kg orally. Faecal samples were collected before treatment and at autopsy, 2, 6, or 16 days after treatment, when the intestines were also examined for helminths. None of the treatments gave satisfactory anthelmintic results.


    -Kathy
     
  7. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member Project Manager

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2626577
    Ivermectin in the treatment of helminthiasis in caged raised adult guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris galeata Pallas).
    Okaeme AN, Agbontale J.
    Abstract
    The treatment of natural infections of helminthiasis in caged raised guinea-fowls indicates a high efficacy of ivermectin in the elimination of infection due to both juvenile and adult stages of Heterakis gallinarum, Ascaridia galli, Subulura suctoria, Raillietina spp. and Capillaria caudinflata at dose levels of 0.07 mg/kg and 0.14 mg/kg per adult bird, subcutaneously administered. Guinea-fowls treated responded with no observable side effect and remained clean of any helminth infection for over 6 weeks. Discussion on the broad-spectrum and cost-effectiveness of the drug are briefly mentioned.
     
  8. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member Project Manager

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3376414
    Ivermectin in the control of helminthiasis in guinea fowl Numida meleagris galeata Pallas.
    Okaeme AN1.
    Author information
    1
    Wildlife/Range Division, Kainji Lake Research Institute, Kwara State, Nigeria.
    Abstract
    Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris galeata Pallas) were treated with subcutaneous injection of Ivomec at dose rate of 0.14 mg/kg to control and reduce mortalities due to helminthiasis. Ten hours after treatment faecal droppings contained both adult and larval stages of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Subulura suctoria and fragments of Raillietina spp. Recovery was found 48 hours later. Drug efficacy was 100%.
     
  9. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member Project Manager

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2267731
    Anthelmintic activity of ivermectin against experimental Ascaridia galli infection in chickens.
    Sharma RL1, Bhat TK, Hemaprasanth.
    Author information
    1
    Regional Research Centre, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Kashmir.
    Abstract
    The efficacy of ivermectin against Ascaridia galli infection was evaluated in chickens under controlled laboratory conditions in two separate experiments. In each experiment 22 White Leghorn chicks were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 (infected-treated), 9 (infected-control) and 3 (uninfected-control) birds. Each bird in the former two groups was orally infected with 1,500 embryonated A. galli eggs. The chicks in the treated group were subcutaneously injected with ivermectin at a dose of 0.3 mg kg-1 body weight on Day 10 (Experiment 1) and Day 35 post-infection (Experiment 2) for immature and adult infections, respectively. The treated birds had 0.9% (Experiment 1) and 0.4% (Experiment 2) worm recovery compared with 8.7 and 8% in the infected-untreated controls of the respective experiments. The fall in post-treatment faecal egg counts was 81 and 92% in birds treated on Days 10 and 35, respectively. The drug was found to be 90 and 95% effective against immature and adult worms, respectively. The lower lesion score and post-treatment near-normal haematobiochemical picture in treated birds confirmed these observations. The treated birds also had a better growth rate than the untreated chickens. The mature worms in the intestinal lumen of the host were more sensitive to the treatment than the immature stages of the parasite in the tissue phase.
     
  10. casportpony

    casportpony Team Tube Feeding Captain & Poop Inspector General Premium Member Project Manager

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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15685936
    Levamisole residues in chicken tissues and eggs.
    El-Kholy H1, Kemppainen BW.
    Author information

    Abstract
    Levamisole is currently being used to treat capillaria infection in chickens even though there is no published withdrawal information available for levamisole in chickens. Tissue residue withdrawal of levamisole in chickens was studied in 32 healthy broiler breeder chickens at the age of 32 wk (peak of egg production). Levamisole residues in chicken tissues, eggs, and plasma were determined by HPLC with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 225 nm. The highest level of residue and longest withdrawal after oral administration of 40 mg/kg levamisole to chickens was in the liver. On d 3 the level of levamisole were undetectable in the plasma. On d 9, levamisole residue in eggs was 0.096 microg/g and on d 18 it was 0.06 microg/g or less in all the analyzed chicken tissues. Those levels were lower than the recommended maximum residue limit (MRL). The withdrawal time for levamisole in chickens was longer than for other species tested, which is due in part to a larger dose of levamisole being recommended for chickens. In conclusion from this research, 9 d are needed for levamisole in eggs to be less than the MRL, and 18 d of withdrawal are needed before medicated birds are slaughtered if their tissues are to be safe for human consumption.
     
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