Information

By tfpets, Jan 11, 2012 | |
  1. tfpets
    I find interesting tidbits while browsing around. Things I did not know, and I want to remember:
    Nicarbazin is an anticoccidial drug that reduces reproductive performance when it's inadvertentlyadded to layer or breeder diets at normal anticoccidial levels. The yolk membranes are weakened,resulting in mottling of the yolk. Nicarbazin fed to brown-egg layers turns their eggshells white within 48 hours, although this is completely reversible when the product is withdrawnfrom the feed. Even low levels of nicarbazin can cause some loss in shell color, mottlingof egg yolks and a decline in hatchability.

    Table 1. Non-infectious causes of reduced egg production.
    CAUSES OF DECLINE
    SIGNS/SYMPTOMS
    OMISSION OF INGREDIENTS
    Salt
    Nervous flock, increased pecking, feathers in digestive tract
    Calcium
    Birds down in cages, increased incidence of shell-less eggs
    Vitamin D3
    Increased mortality from calcium depletion, increased shell-less eggs
    Protein
    Increased nervousness, increased mortality (peckouts), poor albumen quality, feather eating
    Fat
    Low body weight gains, drop in egg size
    TOXICOSES
    Salt
    Increased mortality due to urolithiasis, lowered feed intake
    Phosphorus
    Lower feed intake, soft bones, thin shells, increased shell-less eggs
    Vitamin D3
    Increased shell-less eggs, soft bones
    Mycotoxins
    Nervousness, mouth lesions, fatty livers, biliary hyperplasia in liver tissue, reduced feed intake, thin shell
    Botulism
    Weakness, limp neck, neck feathers easy to pull out, prostration
    ANTICOCCIDIALS
    Nicarbazin
    Shell-less eggs, loss of pigment of brown eggs, lowered hatch, of fertile eggs
    Monensin
    Reduced feed consumption, birds lack coordination
    MANAGEMENT MISTAKES
    Out of feed
    Nervous flock, decreased feed consumption
    Out of water
    Blue combs, birds gathered around waterers
    Inadequate daylength
    Unusual pattern of egg production
    High ambient temperature
    Reduced egg size, reduced feed consumption, increased water consumption, panting
    ECTOPARASITES
    Northern fowl mite
    Nervousness, finding mites on birds (usually around the cloaca)
    Lice
    Nervousness, weight loss, reduced feed intake
    Stick-tight fleas
    Fleas embedded in the fleshy parts of the chickens's head around the eyes, ulceration and irritation of skin around the eyes
    ENDOPARASITES
    Nematodes (roundworms)
    Unthriftiness, poor feed efficiency, increased mortality (in severe infestations)
    Cestodes (tapeworms)
    General unthriftiness, dry and unkempt feathers, hearty appetite but weight loss
    Table 2. Typical diagnostic signs associated with common diseases and conditions which can cause a drop in egg production.
    DISEASE
    SIGNS
    Fowl pox
    - scab-like lesions on the unfeathered body parts (especially face and comb)
    Coccidiosis
    - characteristic gross lesions in the intestinal tract - higher mortality in some cases - bloody droppings
    Infectious bronchitis
    - coughing, sneezing, and rales - egg production drops markedly (by as much as 50%). - soft-shelled or misshapen eggs - watery egg white - poor pigmentation of brown-shelled eggs
    Newcastle disease
    Mild form:Acute form: - reduction in feed and water consumption- respiratory distress - dramatic drop in egg production- twisted neck - decreased shell quality - increased mortality
    Avian influenza
    Mildly pathogenic form:Highly pathogenic form: - listlessness- facial swelling - sneezing, coughing- dark red/white spots on legs and combs - diarrhea- respiratory distress
    Avian encephalomyelitis
    - seldom show clinical signs - slight, transient drop in egg production
    Mycoplasma gallisepticum
    - coughing, sneezing, snicks, rales, nasal and ocular discharge - decrease in feed consumption and egg production
    Fowl cholera
    - sudden unexpected deaths - reduction in feed consumption - swollen wattles - nasal and ocular discharge - cyanosis of head - white water or green mucoid diarrhea
    Infectious coryza
    - swelling and puffiness around the face and wattles - thick, foul-smelling nasal discharge - labored breathing - decrease in feed and water consumption
    This document is copyrighted by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) for the people of the State of Florida. UF/IFAS retains all rights under all conventions, but permits free reproduction by all agents and offices of the Cooperative Extension Service and the people of the State of Florida. Permission is granted to others to use these materials in part or in full for educational purposes, provided that full credit is given to the UF/IFAS, citing the publication, its source, and date of publication.

    An Alphabetical List of More than 60 Chicken Breeds
    With Comparative Information​


    http://www.ithaca.edu/staff/jhenderson/chooks/chooks.html


    ROOSTER IDENTIFICATION
    According to UC Davis Veterinary Care Program:
    2. Physical Characteristics (4-6 weeks of age)
    a. Comb – The cockerels comb is medium size and pinkish, the pullets is small and yellowish.
    b. Legs – The cockerel’s legs are sturdy and long, the pullets are finer and shorter.
    c. Tail – The cockerel’s tail is stumpy and curved, the pullets is longer and straight.
    d. Back – The cockerel has a thin line of stub feathers down the center of his back, the pullet has more advanced feathering along the center of her back.
    e. Side of neck, flank and crop – The feathering in the cockerel in these areas is poorly advanced, the pullets feathering in these areas is well advanced.
    f. Wing bows – In the cockerel the wing bows are bare, in pullets the wing bows are covered with small feathers.

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