I have food and water both in the coop and in the run. I have water in a few location in the run. If you want them to grow fast feed them often. Even if there is food in the feeder if you bring somemore they will eat it like they are starving.
I only keep their food dishes INSIDE the coop to try and deter freeloaders and damage from rain and humidity. That being said I do give them warm food outside the coop in the morning and some treats out there during the day, but nothing that they don't consume almost instantaneously.
I, for the time being, only keep water OUTSIDE the coop as it leaked and got my bedding wet. Once it starts to get colder I'll have to put the water in the coop again.
If you keep the food in the coop you have more control over who eats it--mice, rats squirrels and, the worst, wild birds are not the kind of thing you want to feed. Water either place but if you live in an area where it will freeze you're going to probably want it inside where you can use some sort of heater to prevent this. Don't worry about the chickens, once they know were the stuff is located they'll come to it. I, for one, keep both inside.
I do both--when the lights go on or door gets open for them to free range in morning-I immediately bring the food outside-because they poop like crazy first thing in am-the more of it goes outside the better-the waterers stay inside and I fill pools with fresh water everyday for them-I keep a huge plastic lid under my waterers because the ducks are so messy and trash my nice clean shavings-the plasitc lid traps all of it and I drain it out everyday-rinse it and put it back-it works great. Nice days food outside rainy wet days inside